Let me introduce you to a very vicious killer on this planet: particulate matter. If you've never heard about particulate matter you should - let me tell you why.
In 2016, just over 100,000 people died because of armed conflicts.
Mortality because of particulate matter?
Those statistics should tell you why particulate matter is not a side-issue.
If the numbers displayed above make you pissed, that's great...
I got the exact same response.
Contrary to what you've been told, it's not drinking alcohol that's killing you sooner, or not moving enough. Of course, drinking lots of alcohol and sitting on the couch all day does contribute to poor health, but particulate matter just as big if not a bigger problem.
Yes, I know you won't believe that particulate matter exposure is more damaging than not moving, and yet, it's true.
It's simple for the government to tell you that you should move more--but it's not easy to recommend you avoid particulate matter exposure because that stuff is everywhere.
Road vehicles, industry, burning coal or wood for energy, airplanes, and air pollution that chemically reacts in the sky are common sources of particulate matter.
The creation of particulate matter is thus intertwined with the nature of modern societies.
Nature creates particulate matter too, although most of
your exposure in modern society comes from humanly created sources.
Let me tell you...
Particulate matter are very tiny particles that are subsumed in the air. By breathing that air, these tiny particles end up in your body - these particles are transferred to your lungs, bloodstream, and even your brain.
Particulate matter consists of both liquid and solid particles and have different sizes and chemical makeups. The size (measured in diameters) of particulate matter is expressed in "micrometers" or "microns".
One micrometer is a thousand times as small as a millimeter.
Common measurement standards of particulate matter are those with sizes up to 10 micrometers (PM10), 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5), and 0.1 micrometers (PM0.1).
To give an example, PM2.5 thus contains particles with sizes above 0 and up to 2.5 micrometers.
And yes, 2.5 micrometers is insanely small compared to the measurements most people use in their daily lives. A hair on your head, for example, has a diameter that is 30 times as big a PM2.5 pollutant.
So, let's explore why you should care about this vicious but silent killer...
If you're young, old, or already have heart disease or lung problems, you'll be especially susceptible to the health-degrading effects of particulate matter.
"Why were you so stupid to live in polluted
Yes I'm helping you move beyond the gloom and doom I've expressed earlier...
The first step of the strategy is to gain insight in how much particulate matter you're exposed to on a daily basis.
To gain insight you'll need to do take two actions:
So what if our exposure levels are really high?
In that case, move to the next step:
You only need an air purifier if you spend lots of time in the same location...
To make sure you get the best air purifier for the lowest price, I've combined the data of seven different consumer reports on air purifiers, which led to a top three of products.
(my complete methodology is readable in the full blog post.)
Short on money?
I've got a solution:
The Germguardian, priced around $100 and scoring 26 points, is the best budget option out there:
This air purifier filters 200 square feet (18m2), and is ideal for smaller locations such as a bedroom - noise levels are also low for this product.
The downside is that filter replacements are more expensive for this air purifier.
For 1) filtering bigger rooms or 2) if you're more prone to be negatively affected by particulate matter because you're very young, old, or have heart or lung disease, then you might want to opt for maximum filtering efficiency.
Two great options exist in that case:
(This list was last updated on October 24th, 2018.)
one disclaimer: keep your body at a 6 feet (roughly 2 meter) distance from the air purifier to prevent exposing yourself from electromagnetic fields. So do not place an air purifier directly next to your bed.
The most highly recommended air purifiers on the market right now. Please remember that my reviews in the full blog post are much more in depth.
But I'm not done yet: remember I'm laying out a three-step strategy:
Well, if you're getting exposed to lots of particulate matter during your commute an air purifier will generally not help you - other scenarios in which it's hard to use air purifiers also exist.
You may need to:
In fact, eight different strategies to further reduce particulate matter exposure are laid out in this full blog post.
That's it: all you need to know about the basics of particulate matter.
By just using air purifiers alone, you can reduce particulate mater epxoure up to 80%. By adding other strategies on top of that, you may even reach a 90-95% reduction, dramatically cutting your risk for lung problems, heart disease, and cancer.
Yes, you may need to make changes to your life, but you can do it. You fully deserve it...
(By the way, instead of focusing on air pollution in general, this blog post only considers what is called "particulate matter". The next blog post will treat air pollution in general - which is somewhat more complex.)
Don't be bogged down by the complexity of this subject.
While this particulate matter blog post is roughly 22,500 words long, I'm telling you exactly how you can deal with this (potential) problem.
Want to know what to do right now to decrease your risks?
Save to Pinterest:
Particulate Matter Basics:
Particulate Matter Exposure Health Consequences:
Controlling Particulate Matter Levels:
The 30,000-Foot View On Particulate Matter Pollution:
*Post can contain affiliate links. Read my affiliate, medical, and privacy disclosure for more information.
Author: Bart Wolbers. Bart finished degrees in Physical Therapy, Philosophy (BA and MA), Philosophy of Science and Technology (MSc - Cum Laude), and Clinical Health Science (MSc).
Particulate matter - a form of air pollution - can be devastating for your health over time.
You may be thinking, however:
"Are you fear mongering again?"
"Another long technical article that takes a long time to read but doesn't offer much practical advise?"
"Air pollution? I can't do anything about that anyway, so why worry? We all die someday, so no need to worry about air quality.
All these questions are misguided.
Let me tell you why:
First of all, yes, I'm fear mongering but I've got good reasons to do so - you'll learn why in a second. Secondly, even though I'm fear mongering I will offer you tons of practical advise to improve your exposure to this air pollutant. And thirdly, your air quality can and will affect the quality of the time you spend here on this planet - reducing exposure will improve health.
That analogy starts with light:
When I'm talking about health, people often think it's very weird that the light in their environment matters for their health.
Keep in mind that I'm not saying you are unwilling to listen to that advice, but please accept that just some people are.
The same is true for wearing blue blocker glasses after sunset: many people are unwilling or unable to believe that light exposure after sunset affects their sleep quality, simply because many "reputable" institutions or television programs don't put out that recommendation.
Air pollution is exactly like light...
Many people already believe that air pollution - specifically "particulate matter" which I'm treating in this blog post - just cannot have enormous health effects.
Well, if particulate matter exposure did have enormous health effects you'd hear experts talking about the subject all the time, right?
And yet, the opposite is true - particulate matter exposure does have enormous health effects. Simple statistics confirm the often held invalid conclusion that it does not:[2-4; 206; 216]
In total, 6,4 million years are taken from people's maximum lifespans due to exposure to that "PM2,5".
Most of that damage actually occur in Asia.
On a worldwide scale, air pollution--not restricted to particulate matter--caused 4.2 million deaths in 2016.
The problem gets worse:
Billions of people have their lives negatively impacted by air pollution and particulate matter every year. All-in-all, particulate matter is the 13th leading cause of death in the world.
Just imagine that someone adds a tiny bit of poison to your food over time. You won't even be able to perceive that your food tastes differently, because the change is so subtle.
And yet, even though you don't directly perceive more and more poison being added to your body, the damage is still being done.
Again: am I preaching doom and gloom?
Not at all...
The good news is that air quality is getting better in some regions of the world, such as the US and Europe. The bad news is that pollutants levels are still so high that health problems are still caused by them - and will be caused by them decades down the road.
Phrased differently, the air around you is not improving quickly enough so that you can reasonably expect that we'll have clean air in 10 or 20 years time. You thus have to take matters into your own hands.
Northern Scandinavia: one of the few places
on the planet without much air pollution...
There's another problem:
The human safety levels of many environmental toxins have gone down over time. An example is that the "safe" levels for lead exposure - a heavy metal - has been going down for decades.
Particulate matter is the same.
Different institutions such as the World Health Organization and the European Union (EU) have different safety standards.
Even though safe exposure levels recommended by these institutions have been coming down, you can't assume that they are currently strict enough. It can thus reasonably be expected that the maximum exposure levels of particulate matter may go down further over time.
Claims actually exist that there are no safe levels of particulate matter exposure. In other words, the more particulate matter enters your body, the worse the health effects will be.
Of course, there's still the elephant in the room: the topic of air pollution is really abstract for many people.
Particle matter air pollution is often called "particle pollution" as well.
Particulate matter consists of small particles that are dangling in the air. Those particles can both be liquid and solid. There are many examples of particulate matter:
You get the point...
Just imagine that a tremendous amount of invisible tiny particles are suspended in the air that you breathe every second.
That pollutant is mostly emitted into the air as a result of our modern lifestyles.
Different types of particulate matter exist, and these types are mainly categorized by size:
Yes, really small...
Particulate matter often has the size of 2.5 millionth of a meter or 10 millionth of a meter. To give you a point of reference, 1 millionth of a meter is a thousand times as small as a millimeter.
Some types of particulate matter, such as smog, may even be of the size of a tenth of a micrometer - 10,000 times as small as a millimeter.
From now on I'll use the term "micrometer" to refer to a millionth of a meter - another commonly used term for "micrometers" is "microns".
It's not just cars or industry that produce air pollution. Some airborne substances, such as allergens, which trigger people who are allergic to dogs or cats, have roughly have the same size.[7-10]
Viruses and bacteria are also very small, ranging from a 1/100th of a micrometer to 10 micrometers (which is a huge range, I know...)
The diameter of 2.5-micrometer particulate matter is 30 times as small as the diameter of a human hair. 2.5 micrometers are unobservable to the human eye.
And keep in mind that 2.5-micrometer particles are still relatively large compared to much even smaller substances such as tobacco smoke and dust, which can both be smaller than 1 micrometer.
It's not just particulate matter emissions that are regulated though. Government agencies, such as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the US, regulate six different airborne chemicals.
Particulate matter is just one of these chemicals.[16; 17]
(Nerd section: the EPA also regulates carbon monoxide (CO), lead (Pb), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and sulfur dioxide (SO2).
Oh yeah, you must be thinking about how you are doing regarding these chemicals.
In that case I've got a surprise...
Let's take a quick de-tour:
That map gives you an "air quality index", which is used by many governments to inform their inhabitants about the air quality in their living environment.
Knowing the air quality status of your environment can bring the problem of air pollution much more alive if you have trouble imagining such tiny particles.
So let's take Paris...
Paris is relatively close to where I'm living and has a huge air quality problem because of the many cars passing through the city.
Just look at the image below:
Visiting Paris will be "romantic", they said...
And the map I mentioned before, that displays worldwide air quality levels, actually reflects what you're seeing on that picture.
As of October 16th, 2018, the moment I'm writing this blog post, the air quality index in Paris is around 24-70.
The Eastern part of the Netherlands consistently hits the low 20s and is thus (relatively) safe.
As a point of reference, some areas with an extremely low population density have an air quality index of between 2 and 10 - desolate locations in Sweden or Finland come to mind...
So what's the solution if your location is polluted?
Indoor quantities of air pollutants can be ten as high as outdoor. One reason for that distribution is that outdoor air often enters buildings, but many people don't let their indoor air ventilate.
In other words, air pollutants thus enter many buildings but never exit them. Many modern objects such as furniture also lower the indoor air quality even further.
Indoor air pollution gets more problematic because the average person spends up to 90% of their day inside. Another reason you cannot stay inside all the time is that you'd miss out on sunlight - I consider sunlight essential for health.
Staying inside 24-7 to avoid air pollution is thus not a good health strategy...
Particulate matter with the size of 2.5 micrometers is thus more damaging than particulate matter with the size of 10 micrometers.
Bigger particles are easier to filter larger through the airways - more on that topic later.
So why spend an entire massive blog post on particulate matter alone?
Why don't I talk about air pollution in general?
Particulate matter was not always the primary air pollutant though...
The "Valley Fog" in Meuse, Belgium, in 1930, and "the great smog of London" of 1952 and are notorious air pollution incidents.[13; 14] An air pollutant called "sulfur dioxide" was the culprit in these cases...
The Belgian instance led to 60 deaths and thousands of people who became sick--in the English instance, more than 6,000 people died due to the direct and indirect consequences of that air pollution.
The great smog of London was a wake-up call and led to a wave of legislation to reduce air pollution in Western societies.
Air pollution scandals are not restricted to European and North American countries though: the 2013 Harbin smog in China is a more recent notorious air pollution event. In that case, particulate matter was the main culprit.
Of course, air pollution problems are much older than the 20th century.
Before the 20th century, if you were working in a coal mine you were exposed to horrendous amounts of (particulate matter) pollution.
Even in pre-history, your ancestors would be temporarily exposed to lots of particulate matter. Camp or forest fires, or the occasional volcano eruptions are examples thereof.
So what's the solution?
Simple: read this full blog post.
I'll tell you everything you need to know to reduce your risks and reclaim your health - it's going to be a somewhat long ride, but in the end, you'll learn how you can cut your expose levels by 50-90%.
In the next section, I'll lay the groundwork and tell you explain what different types of particulate matter exist...
(Nerd section: if you've been reading my blog you know that I'm very keen on giving definitions at the beginning of articles, so that I'm sure you and I are talking about the same thing when you're reading my articles. In the case of air pollution, it's more difficult to give strict definitions because hundreds of chemicals are subsumed in the air. A few of these chemicals, such as particulate matter, tropospheric ozone, and sulfur dioxide, act as a benchmark for air pollutants in general. It's impossible to measure all air pollutants in existence because there are thousands if not tens of thousands of possible categories. Air pollutant levels also fluctuate throughout the year and are specific to locations, and there's no one size fits all measurement that can be generalized, either spatially or temporally.)
Understanding the different types of particulate matter is important because not all types have the same health consequences.
Remember that particulate matter can consist of both solid and liquid particles that are suspended into the air. Particulate matter can actually consist of hundreds of diverging chemical elements.
For that reason there's no "one size fits all" approach to understanding how particular matter is chemically made up.
The size of these particles is another story - size is easier to standardize. It's important to understand how the particulate matter scale works.
Let me explain...
PM10 also includes the particles that are contained within the PM2.5 and PM0.1 categories because of the way the scale is built up.
In the EU, for example, 70% of all PM10 particles are actually PM2.5 particles,. Phrased different, only 30% of PM10 particles have a diameter of 2.5 to 10 micrometers.
As a logical consequence of how the scale is built up, PM2.5 also contains all PM0.1 particles because PM2.5 contains all particles smaller than 2.5 micrometers, and thus also PM0.1 sized particles as well.
You get the drill...
That was simple: all you need to know about size.
Let's now consider why most inhabited places of this planet are engulfed with clouds of particulate matter.
Particulate matter can be formed in several ways.
Examples of primary particulate matter are combustion by several types of engines (including petrol and diesel), or using coal or biomass for energy creation.
"Primary particulate matter" can also form as a result of slow damage that occurs to infrastructure over time, such as roads, and as a byproduct several industries.
If you're a metalworker, for example, certain chemical compounds such as nickel, lead, and arsenic can be emitted into the air and can eventually end up in your body. The creation of cement or mining are examples industrial processes creating particulate matter pollution.
Even indoor cooking and heating can create particulate matter - which frequently occurs in developing countries.
Wood combustion in residential areas is also a frequent source of primary particulate matter pollution.
Interesting fact: cars don't just put off particulate matter through their emissions - using your brakes, for example, can also emit chemicals into the air from your tires and brake mechanism.
Yes, that toxic stuff is everywhere...
Campfires: avoid standing in the smoke to reduce
the negative health effects...
Nevertheless, deserts and volcanoes are also natural sources of particulate matter. Not all particulate matter is thus created by human beings. Deserts, for example, can supply lots of dust that's carried through the air for very long distances.
For that reason, desert areas such as Saharan Africa, locations around Saudi Arabia and regions in central Asia end up with very high particulate matter concentrations.
But there's yet another particulate matter source:
Examples are gasses that are emitted as a by-process of energy creation which can result in the formation of particulate matter in the air. Gases emitted by traffic are another example.
Humans are the main reason why secondary particulate matter exists.
Because the air is nowadays being filled with gases and particles, chemical reactions in the air create additional chemical configurations that results in new particulate matter.
But let's go back to the different sizes of particles: PM10, PM2.5, and PM0.1.
What happens with these particles once they're emitted?
Particles close to 10 micrometers (PM10), for example, can travel up to 20-30 miles and (generally) stay in the air for a few hours.
Smaller particles below the 2.5 micrometers size (PM2.5), on the contrary, can stay in the air for weeks and travel for hundreds of miles. PM2.5 can even cross continents and oceans...
Bigger is thus not better (in this regard)...
(Nerd section: I know the Aristotelian thesis that heavier objects react differently to gravity than lighter ones has been solidly debunked since Galileo. The issue with the travel distance of particles, however, does not have to do with gravity but with air resistance. To give an analogy: a feather, due to its low weight, is easily affected by air resistance, while cannonballs are not. PM10 is, therefore, less easily affected by air resistance than PM2.5 or PM0.1.)
Such particles are not regulated because in that case, governments would have to start regulating the sand that's emitted into the air. Larger particles also have fewer health effects, and regulation is therefore not that necessary.
But let's move to another topic:
In addition to the size of the particles, institutions also measure how many particles are subsumed in the air and their weight:
The levels of particulate matter are measured in micrograms per cubic meter. A cubic meter is a three-dimensional area with a length, width, height of one meter.
You can have a particulate matter concentration of 2 micrograms per cubic meter (m3), for example, or a level of 35 micrograms per m3.
More micrograms per m3 generally entail that you're breathing in more particles. And more particulate matter subsumed in the air means you'll experience worse health consequences.
To minimize the negative health effects, institutions all over the world have developed guidelines on how much particulate matter are allowed to be contained in the air.
In the US, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set following maximal exposure levels:
How about the EU? As always, the EU has somewhat stricter qua environmental policies compared to the US:
Then there's the WHO. The WHO is even more strict:
Please observe that the WHO's averaged PM2.5 exposure standard is three times as strict as US policy.
There's a problem though...
Even if you're living in a Western European country - these countries are often considered "clean" on a worldwide basis - you won't get close to these WHO-mandated maximum exposure standards.
Paris: clean but not so clean...
Your health is thus almost certainly affected by particulate matter no matter where you live unless you're living on the North pole or Amazonian rain forest...
Let me explain:
Even if you're exposed to an average of 5 micrograms per m3 on annual basis your health is still being damaged, even though you're only exposed to half the particulate matter the WHO recommends as a maximum.
How about a 2.5 micrograms per m3 exposure level?
In that case, the damage will be less than when you get exposed to 5 micrograms per m3, but your health is still damaged.
Less is more...
The next step in my argument is to understand how particulate matter works in your body. By understanding how particulate matter ends up there, you can easier imagine why it was such widespread health effects...
Getting exposed to all the particulate matter in the world would not really matter if these substances never ended up in your body. That toxic stuff does end up in your body, however, and causes health problems.
The question is, of course: "how does particulate matter get there?"
The answer to that question is, unfortunately, not fully known yet. The upside (or perhaps downside) is that many different mechanisms have been found.
What is known, from rat studies, for example, is that part of the PM2.5 you inhale sticks to the "epithelium" of your lungs. Epithelium cells make up the inner linings of your lungs where air is exchanged.
In rat studies, the bacterial colonies in the airways also altered by particulate matter as well. When the wrong bacteria are located in air airways or lungs, you'll have higher risks for getting infections--millions of people die yearly due to airway infections...
Human autopsies also demonstrate that if you're exposed to lots of particulate matter these substances can be found in your lungs after death.
It can thus be definitively concluded that particulate matter does end up in your airways and lungs - the only question is precisely how...
PM2.5, because it is smaller than PM10, can penetrate up until the lung sacs - called "alveoli" - the location where blood exchanges oxygen in the lungs.
Your lungs transfer oxygen from outside your body to your blood and remove excess carbon dioxide (CO2). Problems emerge when you're breathing in fine particles, as some of these particles are thus exchanged with your blood together with oxygen and CO2.
Fortunately, you've got what is called a "lymphatic system". That lymphatic system filters your blood, removing some particulate matter found therein. The lymphatic system is an important part of your immune system.
The downside is that the lymphatic system cannot filter all particulate matter.
Transferred by your blood, some of the particulate matter ends up in other organs (because your lungs are already hit by this point) - examples are your heart, kidneys, and brain.
Even fetuses - in other words: unborn babies - are affected by particulate matter accumulation.[171-175] To be precise: mothers' every 10 micro-grams increase in particulate matter per m3 of air leads to a 5-gram loss in birth weight.
Prospective mothers: beware...
As you can see, there are several mechanisms by which particulate matter affects your body. Many mechanisms, such as how particulate matter influences organ function, still need to be investigated in more depth.
And there's more evidence:
If you're living near a cement plant that emits lots of chromium into the air, that chromium can be detected in your blood, for example.
If the particulate matter you inhale contains more lead you'll simply end up with more toxic lead in your blood.
Particulate matter can increase lead levels in that air through certain cooking methods or by traffic emissions. Even the water quality in your area can also be negatively affected.[332; 335; 336]
Metalworkers: beware--don't just protect your eyes, but also your airways...
On another note:
Remember that I mentioned that particulate matter larger than PM10 was not regulated because governments would have to mainly regulate sand that's transmitted through the air?
There's another reason why particulate matter larger than PM10 is less harmful: these substances are much more easily filtered in the nose and upper airways. Large particulate matter is thus not your main health concern, as the body can more adequately deal with them.
These very tiny particles can directly end up in your brain when you breathe them.
These particles may travel through or alongside the nerve that runs from your nose to your brain - called the "olfactory nerve".
Let me explain...
The EPA did not even measure PM2.5 levels before 1997. PM0.1 - which are even smaller of course - has only been the new "star" on the block in recent years.
The health effects of particulate matter are thus actively being researched today and in the coming decades.
It can reasonably be expected that many new mechanisms by which particulate matter affects your body are discovered in time.
That's bad news, as you'll have to act on incomplete data today...
In the next section, I'll explore the currently scientifically-proven health effects of exposing yourself to this toxin - even today's incomplete data is frightening...
Let's dig deep into a complete list of all the effects that particulate matter can have on your overall health.
Fasten your seat belts - this is going to be a somewhat depressing list.
Keep in mind that, after you've read the entire list I will tell you exactly how to actually avoid all these particulate matter health disasters...
So that's it...
Sure, there are many other topics that I could have covered, such as skin disease,[144; 185] changes in your DNA,[162-165] and causal increases of autism in children - all due to particulate matter exposure.[221-226]
Other examples are that fetuses may be born prematurely or even die, have birth defects, and that children get more lung issues after birth.[176-184]
The problems don't stop there:
Even as an adult, air pollution will also make you less productive. If the indoor air quality of your office is poor, you'll lose 6-9% of productivity each day.
The ultimate office: no air pollution and plenty of sunlight.
Remember that are skeptical towards the negative health effects of air pollution, not understanding the extent of the damage that's being done.
I hope you are convinced by now...
(Nerd section: short-term causal models are available for studying the effects of PM exposure on health, but longer-term causal models are not that prevalent as of right now - especially for PM0.1. I'm very interested in longer-term studies of particulate matter exposure.[105; 166]
I've already alluded in the section above that some groups of people should be more worried about exposing themselves to particulate matter though.
Let's find out...
Remark: there does not seem to be any difference between how ethnicity are affected by particulate matter exposure.
Worldwide, the greatest overall burden of particulate matter exposure is actually carried by elderly people in low to mid-income countries.
Some of these countries have very high atmospheric particulate matter levels, which is toxic when combined with the lowered defensiveness of elderly people.
Almost done considering the health effects...
The answer varies, but some studies suggest that your health can be negatively influenced for decades after the initial (heavy) exposure.
Of course, the exposure I get today will most heavily impact how I function today and tomorrow. But overall, previous exposures can possibly influence your health years down the road.
Even your brain volume and the health of your blood today may thus have been negatively affected by previous particulate matter exposure.
Naturally, past exposure to particulate matter becomes less and less damaging over time. Your current exposure thus remains the most important predicting factor in determining what particulate matter's health effects are - unless you ended up with an irreversible disease.
The bottom line is that timing matters: just a few hours of exposure to particulate matter can increase your risk of having adverse heart problems, for example.
In other words, if you travel to London tomorrow, the air there will immediately have negative consequences to your health...
Keep in mind that the full health effects of particulate matter are even more complex:
This blog post is already running too long for some people to read...
Treating tens if not hundreds of different chemicals such as potassium or nickel, and their respective effects on different diseases would make the topic unnecessarily complex for most readers.
Particulate matter is made up of 1) solids; 2) liquids. Lots of evidence also exists, however, that gases can negatively impact your health.
A simple example of a gas is benzene that you may get exposed to when filling up the tank of your car.
I do want to re-emphasize one point:
First of all, ultrafine PM0.1 can be directly taken up into the bloodstream, without filtering in the nose, airways, or lungs.
I've chosen not to go into more detail into the specific PM0.1 exposure issue unless many people request a section specifically targeted towards PM0.1 in a new version of this blog post.
Getting into the nitty-gritty of PM0.1 won't interest most poeple.
One last remark of this section:
Please keep in mind that much science inquiring into PM2.5 and PM0.1 specifically has yet to be carried out. Remember that PM2.5 has been intensively investigated for only two decades, and PM0.1 has hit the spotlight for just a few years.
Some of these substances' health effects are just not yet known. The depressive list of health consequences you've read before will thus need to be updated over time...
PM10 has been studied for decades, however.
On the upside:
The next section treats the topic of measuring the particulate matter levels in your environment.
Remember the air quality map I've mentioned earlier?
Observe on that map that particulate matter concentrations also vary widely across the globe. Less densely populated areas in Western Europe are generally very safe. East and South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are generally very much polluted.
Consider the following problem:
Most of the data that's collected on particulate matter concentrations are actually not coming from your house, the building you're working, or the train or road you are spending time at every morning.
The data on that map is often sourced from 5 or 10 blocks away from your home. Most people thus don't have any actual data on the PM2.5 or PM10 pollution at the locations they're spending most of their time.
Let me explain:
Let's say I'm living in Paris.
In that case, there might be tens of different particulate matter measurement systems placed around and outside the city that all yield different outcomes.
That sounds great, right?
Just observe what the measurement system three blocks away tells you, and you know how polluted your street is, right?
Don't believe me?
View the map of Paris below:
(again, you can observe the current air pollution levels around your location on this map.)
There's even a big difference between several places in the inner city.
If you really want to know how much air pollution you're "ingesting" on a daily basis, you can thus not rely on the government's data--you have to take your own measurements instead.
And, no, I'm not selectively showing you cities to prove my point.
Here's the data on Mexico city on October 16th, 2018:
Again, more than a 10-fold difference in air pollution levels...
New York City?
An even bigger discrepancy:
Observe the 25-fold difference in exposure there. Of course, there are anomalies to that 10-fold difference observation.
Beijing is one example:
Unfortunately, it also seems that there's nowhere to hide in Beijing--but that's another topic I'll get back to later.
Please observe that not all places in the city are measured in terms of air quality.
If you want real-time data on how you are doing in your house, office, during transit, or when you're spending time in the park, you thus need to measure air pollution levels yourself.
The seasons also affect how much particulate matter hangs around in the air. Rain does the same thing.
The air quality map can give me a totally different outcome tomorrow compared to what it's telling me today. If a factory shuts down tomorrow, I may be exposed to 70% less particulate matter compared to today.
Circumstances thus matter...
(Neither can you rely on the government's solutions.)
One common government recommendation is to tell people not to go outside when air pollution levels are too strong. To me that's a very imperfect solution because you're no longer able to expose your eyes and skin to sunlight - which I consider a prerequisite for optimal health.
The solution is more complicated - stay with me to find out why in section seven...
Another important point:
Remember I told you that some of particulate matter pollution could originate from a desert? While you may get exposed to some particulate matter from far away, most is actually sourced from your direct environment.
Of course, even though smaller types of particulate matter such as PM2.5 and PM0.1 can travel farther, but particulate matter from nearby busy streets, heavy industry, and airports are most killing...
Airports can double particulate matter concentrations for miles
Remember that air pollution levels can vary 10-fold across different areas in the same city.
Moving out of the city center towards the periphery can thus have a dramatic impact on the particular matter you're exposed to on a daily basis.
Living very close to a busy road, for example, dangerously increases your overall mortality risk. That statement does not just reflect my opinion--it's a solid fact.
Consider the deaths that are attributable to just PM2.5 in China in 2016:
That's 721,000 people who've lost their lives due to just PM2.5 in a single year in China. China's neighboring country, India, counted 666,000 deaths from PM2.5 that year.
Traffic is not the only particulate matter source that should worry you:
If your neighbors are burning wood or coal to generate energy, and the smoke is directed your way very frequently, then you're going to suffer the consequences.
If you're living next to a coal power plant, you may want to move to the other part of the town if possible, so that you can still keep your job in that same city.
But I'd like to go one step further:
Again, measuring your air quality is highly recommended if you live in a polluted area. You'll get real-time feedback on how good (or bad) the air quality at your location is.
The air quality detector listed above costs $129, and measures both PM2.5 and PM10 (and additionally, formaldehyde and "VOCs" other air pollutants). CO2 levels are also measured by that monitor.
On another note:
Unfortunately, I've not seen any commercial grade affordable PM0.1 air quality detectors. Only the more expensive $260 Dylos measures particles up until 0.5 micrometers.
The average person does not need to buy that meter.
If you don't have an air purifier yet, then the main reason you'll want to measure the air quality is getting a general impression of the PM2.5 levels in the location you're spending time at (over time).
(The topic of air purifiers is treated in the next section)
If you do have an air purifier, then dropping levels of PM2.5 with that air purifier will always be combined with even further lowering of PM0.1, as air purifiers capture the latter particles roughly equally well as the former.
It's also very rare to have extremely high PM2.5 particle levels while having very low PM0.1 levels--PM2.5 particles can thus act as a good benchmark for PM0.1.
(PM0.3-sized particles are the most difficult to capture for air purifiers, moreover, so both PM2.5 and PM0.1 are cleaned pretty effectively with a high-quality product.)
Bottom line: if you're living in the civilized world and the air quality map shows a trend of lower air quality in your environment, it's time to acquire more data on your location.
When measuring the PM2.5 and PM10 levels in the environment you're spending time daily, make sure to collect data over longer periods of time.
Of course, if you measure dangerous levels for several days, you'll already know what you need to know. In some instances, however, high PM2.5 might, for example, be harder to detect:
Your daily transit, for example, may only take an hour but expose you to 90% of the particulate matter that day. Neighbors burning wood next door may also only be detectable at certain times...
And if you do detect high levels of particulate matter in your home or office?
In that case, read the next section on using air purifiers...
Want to know what to do right now to decrease your risks?
In this section I'll cover the most important guidelines for using air purifiers to reduce particulate matter in your environment - I'll also give you the best product recommendations...
Keep in mind whether you need an air purifier really depends on your circumstances.
Not everyone needs an air purifier.
And you may also be thinking: "great, I've already decided to get a high-quality air purifier now, so how long will it take before my health improves?"
Of course, the damage that has been accumulating for decades cannot be undone in a few weeks or months.
Nonetheless, it's better to start cleaning the air today rather than tomorrow if you're exposed to lots of air pollution.
Blood pressure and stress hormone levels will drop off immediately after you start purifying your air, for example...
Air purifiers are devices which filter the air that circulates through them. These devices contain two main components that are important to remember: 1) a motor; 2) a filter.
The motor in the air purifier makes sure that air moves through the filter. The filter then captures any harmful substances and prevents these substances from re-circulating through the air.
The dirty air thus enters the air purifier, and clean air exists the purifier - if all goes well...
Not all air purifiers are created equal though.
The more air moved through the filter by the motor, the higher your energy costs will be. More restrictive filters (i.e., the more particles trapped by the air purifier) will increase energy costs also.
You, therefore, don't want just any air purifier: you'll want a high-quality product:
In general, HEPA filters are considered the golden standard for consumer air purifiers. HEPA filters basically entail that lots of particles are trapped by such a filter...
Next to regular HEPA filters, "true HEPA" filters also exist. "True HEPA" generally filter the air better than regular HEPA filters.
A true HEPA filter removes 99,97% of all particles bigger than 0.3 micrometers. Only 0.03% of particles bigger than 0.3 micrometers are thus re-emitted into the air.
In other words:
If 100.000 particles enter the filter, only 30 will come out "alive" and are re-introduced into the air.
In most cases, true HEPA filters are most effective with larger (PM10) and much smaller (PM0.1) particles, and least effective around the 0.3-micrometer particle-size range. In the least effective range, 99,97% of particles are thus still removed from the air.
You'll thus want a "true HEPA filter" instead of a HEPA filter, as the latter is not necessarily standardized to filter at maximum efficiency.
(Don't be fooled by advertisements that filters are "highly efficient" or "HEPA-like", as these air purifiers almost never live up to expectations and use deceptive marketing.)
Additionally, filtration "efficiency" is not the exclusively important parameter to look out for when buying an air purifier.
If you've got a 300 square feet room and you place a true HEPA air purifier in that room which has a maximum capacity to filter 150 square feet, the filtration process is not going to be optimal.
Let me explain...
Remember the motor component of an air purifier?
Without a strong motor, an air purifier cannot move enough air around in a room, and cannot effectively clean that air.
Of course, true HEPA filters need to be functioning properly in order to work correctly. If your filter has defects, filtering will not be effective nor efficient.
To be honest, that's bogus.
Again, true HEPA filters do the worst in particle ranges of 0.3 micrometers. Both above and below the 0.3-micrometer size, true HEPA filters actually entrap more air pollutants such as PM2.5.
Of course, (true) HEPA filters filter many other toxins from the air:
Some substances are not filtered with a (true) HEPA filter, such as Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). Smoke from tobacco, oil, and wildfires (insofar they are not solid or liquid), and odors can generally not be removed by (true) HEPA filters.
The simple reason is that air purifiers are made to move air through them, and gases can thus also move through the filter.
Fortunately, most modern air purifiers actually contain additional filters to remove gasses.
I'm just mentioning this fact so that you're not under the impressing that just buying a true HEPA filter is always sufficient for all circumstances.
The problem with carbon filters is that they're of different quality. Not all carbon filters are great at filtering out most gases.
Again, you'll want a high-quality product...
Oh yeah, one more thing:
If you're keeping your windows opened up in a polluted environment, no amount of air purifying is ever going to keep your environment clean.
If you've got 3 dogs and you're cooking indoor in a small 160-feet apartment, one high-quality purifier might not be enough either.
On the other hand:
If you're sleeping in your small bedroom in your house in the woods that's located in the middle of nowhere, an air purifier that cleans 1300 square feet is overkill - you'll waste your money.
The goal is thus to find the air purifier that's right for you...
(Nerd section: the filters inside a HEPA purifier are often made of fiberglass or synthetic nonwoven fibers). The former demands an increased air pressure compared to the latter, and therefore filters more particles from the air. On the carbon filters for gases: some gases such as formaldehyde or methane cannot be properly filtered by carbon, and thus most modern air purifiers cannot capture all air pollutants.)
I'll tell you in a second...
Let me first consider a problem:
The problem in answering that aforementioned question is that I don't have a team of several people and a laboratory to test many of high-quality air purifiers for several days.
And yet, I can make a good air purifier recommendation to you?
By combining the data of several great air purifier tests that have been carried out in the last year - I've included these tests if and only if these tests have described their testing methodology well.
The number 1 product choice was allocated 10 points, their number 2 choice got 9 points, their number 3 choice 8 points, and so forth. I also included the reasons for choosing the different products in the eventual product analysis.
Some tests did not contain 10 different products, but I've nevertheless included as many products were available. In other words, if only 4-5 products were displayed, I've allocated points to these 4-5 products.
My recommendations are based on adding up the point allocated to each individual air purifier.
The top-3 air purifiers have been listed below (with their final scores).
All air purifiers in consideration have (true) HEPA filters, and are thus capable of filtering out particulate matter. Particulate matter is, of course, the reason you're reading this blog post in the first place.
So what's the outcome?
Here we go:
(This list was last updated on October 24th, 2018.)
This air purifier can improve air quality in rooms up to 530 square feet (~50 square meters).
This device costs $205 (USD) at this point in time and is available in black and white colors to match your interior design. The design is also somewhat smaller than the other two air purifiers coming in at the second and third place.
The Coway has one big advantage: both power consumption and filter replacement are relatively inexpensive - at a low ~$45. The AP-1512HH purifier is also paired with an "Energy Star-rating".
Sure, $205 is a lot of money for some people, but it's your best bet for improving indoor air quality.
This air purifier packs quite the punch for a $200 product, with four filtering mechanism: 1) an easily cleanable pre-filter that removes larger particles such as dust; 2) an odor filter; 3) a true HEPA filter; 4) an ionizer (emitting negative ions into the air--dust or allergens are positively charged, which are purported to be offset these negative ions).
Ionization, however, may prove to be pseudo-scientific and is considered and its benefits are unproven at this point. Fortunately, the ionizer can be turned off, which also inhibits (possible) ozone being emitted from this air purifier.
Fortunately, the California Air Resources Board has specifically tested the ozone emission of this air purifier and was tested at 0.050 parts per million, which is very low.
Another remarkable upside is that the Coway AP-1512HH keeps filtering the air quite well year-after-year, even though the efficiency of most air purifiers degrades over time.
The noise of this air purifier is low, but there's one clear downside: its LED lights shine bright, a topic I'll come back to later.
Overall, it's hard to overestimate how good of an air purifier this is for a $200 price. The Coway AP-1512HH easily outperforms many air purifier that are two or three times as expensive, while also costing less in terms of upkeep.
Different air purifier consumer reports used different versions of the Winix, but as these devices are almost the same, I've rated the Winix 5300 and 5500 as if they were the "same device".
(The Winix 5300 misses some options which the Winix 5500 does include.)
Rating these very similar devices separately would make them end up outside the top three, and studies only tested either of them.
So why the Winix 5500?
First of all, this air purifier can filter rooms up to 360 square feet (or 33 m2). The Winix also automatically tones down its filtering intensity when the air gets cleaner - saving energy that way.
Secondly, this air purifier contains a carbon filter in addition to a true HEPA filter, to remove odors from the air. Carbon filters need to be replaced every 6 months.
Thirdly, a big upside about the Winix-5500 is that it only costs $145. The replacement filters are more expensive, however, than the number one air purifier - coming in at around $60.
Over time, the Winix can thus become more expensive than the Coway AP-1512HH, even though you're paying less up front.
The LED lights on this Winix air purifier can be dimmed, which is the fourth plus.
So why does the Winix take second place instead of first place? Some independent tests rate the filtrating rate of the Winix 5500 lower than the number one spot, the Coway AP-1512HH--although others disagree by grading them as having similar capacities.
Compared to the Coway AP-1512HH, the filters of the Winix 5500 are very easy to replace. If you're totally "non-tech-savvy", then opt for the Winix instead of the Coway AP-1512HH.
The pre-filter of both air purifiers need to be removed and cleaned every two weeks, so keep that fact in mind.
(Pre-filters spare the main HEPA filter - which is more expensive to replace - and the inclusion of a pre-filter is thus economical.)
The Honeywell air purifier contains two different filters - the most important types - which are a carbon pre-filter for gases, and a true HEPA filter (for our much-hated particulate matter).
This air purifier is specifically built towards reducing allergens - that fact alone might place this device at your first place if you've got problems in that health domain.
Energy costs of this air purifier are low, and the device has an "Energy Star-rating."
One downside of this air purifier is its looks.
New HEPA filters are also more expensive than the number one rated device above (averaging $60). Honeywell filters need to be replaced every 6 months with normal use.
A last upside: the air purifier is pretty quiet, making this air purifier ideal for a mid to large-size bedroom.
Keep in mind that this device is best used for smaller rooms - costing only $105.
This air purifier filters areas up to 200 square feet (18 square meters).
In addition to trapping particulate matter through the HEPA filter, odors are also captured and germs are killed through an "ultraviolet C" air sterilizer. Filters need to be replaced every 6-8 months.
The upside is that this smaller air purifier is less noisy than the air purifiers in the number one and two positions, and is thus ideal for bedroom use. The downside for bedroom use, however, is that the LED lights are harder to dim.
Tip: another great location to place this air purifier is close to your desk if you're working in an office. A Germguardian can keep the air in your immediate vicinity clean.
Filter replacement costs $35, and the ultraviolet C air sterilizer costs 15 bucks to replace. One downside over the Coway AP-1512HH is that the Germguardian can become more expensive over a longer period of time due to replacement and electricity costs.
Both are great options and were rated very highly in the air purifier reviews I've synthesized.
These two air purifiers that are targeted towards larger rooms have been tested to 1,300 to 1,500 square feet rooms, or 120 to 140 square meters. Even in such large rooms, they can filter the air every 30 minutes.
Of course, their pricing reflects this increased filtering capacity, ranging from $550 to $750.
Let's review the upsides of the Alen BreatheSmart 75i first:
How about the Coway Airmega 400?
Downside? You can control the Airmega 400S version with WiFi. Solution? Always buy the regular Airmega 400, not the S version. The regular Airmega does not have WiFi connectivity.
The "S" signifies smart, which is usually pretty dumb considering that the amount of wireless radiation is growing exponentially and at a very harmful rate.
Please remember that air purifiers that are targeted towards bigger rooms are also bigger themselves, and will be highly visible when you place them in a small living room.
Disclaimer: keep your body at a 6 feet (roughly 2 meter) distance from the air purifier to prevent excessively exposing yourself to electromagnetic fields. So no placing an air purifier directly next to your bed.
Remark: please don't buy an air purifier that's targeted towards office use for your small condo or your bedroom, as you're literally wasting your money by that course of action.
Moreover, bigger air purifiers don't just cost more money for your first purchase, but their energy demand and filter replacements are also more expensive.
The reason you're spending much more on their energy cost is that a more powerful motor is necessary for such an air purifier to clean an entire office floor.
One legitimate reason to buy a much more expensive air purifier is if you have lots of issues with your airways, such as asthma or extreme allergies.
Another reason to go for maximum air purification is if you've got heart, lung or brain disorder--in an earlier section, I've demonstrated that particulate matter contributes to and even causes such diseases.
If you've got lung issues, for example, a 90% instead of 70% reduction in particulate matter in your living room can make all the difference in the world - especially over time.
Better be safe than sorry in such instances, and spend $750 to clean the air in your house...
Ozone is an air pollutant in and of itself. You can get airway irritation and lung problems from ozone, directly countering the reason you're buying an air purifier in the first place.
Some previous generation air purifiers did in fact emit ozone. Air purifiers emitting ozone is thus sheer lunacy.
(Nerds: please keep in mind that I'm not talking about ozone therapy here, which may or may not have merit--I've not looked at the evidence thoroughly there, and cannot judge.)
Not replacing filters is not an option...
Companies will often tell you how long a filter can last. There's a good reason a "shelf-life" is allocated to filters, as they can get stuffed over time so that less and less air is let through them.
If you fail to timely replace carbon filters that remove gases from the air, these toxic gases can even be re-released into your environment.
Bottom line: follow the instructions for your product.
Air purification often times do not get the intended effects because people think their filters can last for two years, even though the company supplying the air purifier recommends replacement every 6 months.
One more thing:
Blue light will inhibit production of the "melatonin" hormone which aids your sleep quality. It's, therefore, best to put a piece of cloth over the display of the air purifier when you're not looking at the current status (e.g. the current pollution rate in the room).
Another method of avoiding the blue light is to place the air purifier behind a closet, so that blue light is not projected at you.
Don't let your sleep quality be ruined because you're staring at blue light at night
The answer is a categorical "no".
Whether you would benefit from an air purifier depends on your personal context. Of course, if you're spending lots of time in one location where particulate matter levels are very high, then I would recommend an air purifier almost regardless of circumstances.
But if you've just got dust mites in your house, I would first recommend you'd change the carpeting and curtains.
If you're exposed to particulate matter in your car 12 hours a day, and only exposed to particulate matter in that situation, putting an air purifier in your home won't help either - that point should be self-evident.
In what circumstances would I recommend an air purifier?
Well, the most important instance is if you're 1) spending lots of time each week in the same location; 2) if that location has high particulate matter (or air pollution) levels.
You might also have seen portable air purifiers being sold online.
My opinion here:
Le'ts go through severla popular models:
With the hOmeLabs 3 in 1 Air Purifier with HEPA it's impossible to turn off blue light. The product is thus unusable in your bedroom at night. Remember that blue light after sunset disrupts your sleep.
The hOmeLabs may be usable during the daytime though, especially during transit. If you're spending lots of time in one location, I'd opt for one of the earlier static $100-$800 static models I've mentioned earlier.
Another popular portable air purifier, the "Wynd", seems to necessitate an internet connection and thus relies on wireless radiation that you don't want to be putting out when you use a portable air purifier next to your bed or at your desk.
Thus: avoid the "Wynd"...
The next and last "portable" air purifier, the Levoit LV-H132, needs to be connected to the power grid and weighs almost 7 pounds. The upside of this air purifier is that doesn't emit electromagnetic radiator and that its light can be turned off.
Nevertheless, because the Levoit product is pretty heavy, it's hard to use as a portable air purifier.
Most of the smaller air purifiers are also not tested for ozone emissions, which is another red flag. I'll only add a recommendation in this section once a product does not actively harm your health.
There's one last mater I need to consider in this section - which relates to a question many people actually have:
This is a question that actually pops up over and over again...
Short answer: because many scientific studies have actually investigated air purifiers and demonstrated they do work.
Insane claims can actually be found on the internet that HEPA filters don't actually improve your overall health--such stupid claims can be easily debunked.
Overall, 80-90% of studies show positive effects of HEPA filters. Newer studies are generally more positive towards HEPA filters - because of technology improvements.
Concluding that modern HEPA filters don't work is like concluding that condoms don't function today because anti-conception was so bad in the 19th century...
Don't make that (logical) mistake...
50-80% reductions of PM2.5 are not uncommon.
Now, are the health effects of using HEPA filters indoor enormous?
Unfortunately, there are not that many studies that investigate the lowering of particulate matter by using HEPA filters while also measuring direct disease outcomes (such as whether participants have a stroke or heart attack).
There's indirect proof though - if you want to be certain that lowering particulate matter helps.
Let me give you some examples:
To my knowledge, no large-scale studies of PM2.5 have been conducted because PM2.5's effects have not been measured for such a long period of time.
The bottom line is this:
If reducing outdoor air PM10 pollution by 10-20% already increases your health, then 50-80% reductions of PM2.5 and PM0.1 will certainly help your health.
Clean mountain air: indispensable.
(If you'd like to know more about noise pollution read my extensive guide about that topic.)
The sound levels emitted by air purifiers can amount to somewhat more than 50 decibels.
To give you a frame of reference:
50 decibels has the loudness levels of a regular conversation, of background music, a dishwasher, or very light traffic outside your house.
(If you're further removed from the air purifier, the loudness will become less intense of course.)
The problem with 50 decibels?
When you're exposed to that 50 decibel sound level during the nighttime its already considered noise - 40 decibels is considered the safe limit by the European Union for nighttime exposure levels.
Even that European Union research is not as strict as it should be though.
Just 30-40 decibels can negatively affect sleep quality.
For that reason, I'm a big fan of the Alen BreatheSmart 75i as a high-end option - even if you don't have a huge apartment.
Only buy that BreatheSmart if you've got money to spare and think the lowered noise outweighs the decrease in sleep quality. On the lower settings, the Breathesmart remains under the 30-decibel threshold for optimizing sleep quality.
Remember the Breathesmart filters up to 1300 square feet. As an alternative, the same company also offers:
Avoiding excessive noise is always best for your health.
If particulate matter levels go down, you can simply conclude that your health will improve over time.
Everything you need to know about using air purifiers to reduce particulate matter. The next step is to look at other strategies you can use to lower particulate matter in your environment.
(Nerd section: keep in mind that the studies I cite above do not just treat the topic of particulate matter, but are also based on other types of air pollution such as pet allergens or pollen. The main claim, that HEPA filters specifically and air purification in general work, stands.
There are also good explanations why HEPA filters do not demonstrate enormous health benefits (yet). I'll give four reasons. The first reason is that long-term studies inquiring into the health benefits of HEPA filters are rare. Remember that air pollution damages health over time. Just a few days in a polluted city is not going to make you sick--a few years will damage you though. The second reason is that many studies show that participants don't always activate their air purifier when they ought to. One reason can be that study participants themselves don't believe air purification can really solve their problems, and thus even though the placebo group does not activate their sham air purifier either, HEPA filters' true effect size is always underestimated. The third reason is that participants don't always maintain their air purifiers correctly so that the positive health effects drop down considerably over time. Fourthly and lastly, air purification technology has developed over time, especially the last two decades--studies that were more negative in the year 2000 may be invalid as of today, as better air purifiers may show results where older models did not. Overall, the future will probably demonstrate that HEPA filters do have big health benefits)
The most important suggestion I have for reducing the damage that particulate matter does to your body is not to wait for governments to solve the problems for you.
You have to take matters into your own hands...
Again, even the strictest limits of particulate matter exposure that are set by the World Health Organization (WHO) are not strict enough.
The WHO themselves admit that their recommended particulate matter exposure level of 10 micrograms per m3 is still damaging to your health.
And the only way you're going to lower your exposure level to levels below 10 micrograms per m3 is by moving to Scandinavia and live in the middle of nowhere.
And no, living in a city in Norway or Finland is not good enough: pollution levels still far exceed the 10 micrograms per m3 there in most cities...
So what's the solution?
Control what you can control, and minimize damage. Below I'll give you eight different strategies to lower the negative health effects of particulate matter.
This outcome surprised me as well.
If you consume more antioxidants from food, you can partially undo the damage of inhaling lots of particulate matter.
Vitamin D, E, and the plant version of vitamin A (carotenoids) have been demonstrated to lower the respiratory symptoms of exposing yourself to particulate matter, for example. The animal form of vitamin A - called "retinol" - is also known to inhibit allergies.
Some of particulate matter's effects on asthma, COPD, and lung cancer can thus be inhibited or prevented by these aforementioned nutrients.
Additionally, B vitamins may lower some of the damaging effects of PM2.5. - this effect has (problematically) not been studied in great detail (yet).
Other nutrients that may aid are omega-3 fatty acids (preferably from fish, not supplements), vitamin C, choline (found in liver and eggs), and curcumin (a turmeric extract).
Overall fruit and vegetable consumption also help you deal with particulate matter, a fact derived from a study that showed that a Mediterranean diet is protective.
Food: a counter-intuitive particulate matter harm reduction strategy
I recommend antioxidant supplements because it's very easy to go overboard with that strategy. Consuming too many antioxidants - amounts that cannot be had from regular food consumption - has been associated with some adverse health effects, such as an inability to adapt to exercise
The bottom line is very simple: improve your diet to lower the damaging effects of particulate matter.
You're exposed to over four times the particulate matter when riding that bicycle compared to the car when taking the same route.
The more you exert yourself, the greater the amount of particulate matter you're inhaling--exercising outdoors in polluted areas can thus have downsides for some individuals.
During heavy exercise, for example, you'll inhale up to 5 times as much PM0.1 compared to when you're doing nothing.
How do you know when to exposure yourself?
Again, refer to the air pollution map that (hopefully) shows trends for your living location, or buy an air quality monitor instead and do your own measurements. Then make sure you're not exercising at peak pollution times - if you're susceptible to particulate matter's effects.
There's no clear-cut advice I can give that can be universally applied to everyone's location:
Again, taking your unique situation into account becomes paramount.
The strategy to reducing your individual particulate matter exposure is very simple: know when you're exposed in the first place, and then (try to) deal with the situation.
Lots of people are exposed to particulate matter when they're commuting, for example. You might be too. Air filtration in cars is generally quite poor.
Another tip: it's oftentimes very simple to drive outside the city, and exercise in nature. Doing so can cut your particulate matter exposure by 10 or 20-fold during that day because remember: more intense breathing makes you inhale more of that toxic PM0.1 and PM2.5
If you do exert yourself, nasal breathing is always your best option because more toxins get filtered from the air.
There's another layer to this tip though:
Remember that some groups of people are far more susceptible to particulate matter exposure? These groups included children, the elderly, and people with heart disease or lung conditions.
The more airway, lung, cardiovascular, and brain problems you have in general, the warier you should be of exposing yourself to lots of particulate matter. Avoid exercising in the city altogether, in such instances, and get a high-quality air purifier.
For some people exercise's benefits may not even outweigh the particulate matter exposure risks.
Remember that heart problems can emerge relatively quickly if you get exposed to higher levels of particulate matter. Higher exposure does not take a month to manifest itself, but can happen within minutes or hours.
Lung problems? You might exacerbate your conditions by exposing yourself to higher particulate matter levels for an hour.
Genetic variation also exists, moreover, in how well you're able to handle particulate matter exposure.
If you've got lung problems, I'm even willing to go as far as saying that taking the London metro every day (which is very much polluted) is not recommended.
If you've got young children or teenagers, living in a big city is almost certainly going to harm them unless you're willing to go to extremes to lower the exposure they're exposed to...
Bottom line: be more careful if particulate matter does more damage to you...
If you're thinking: "but wait, you recommended NOT to spending lots of time indoor on this blog before?"
Yes, that's true.
But let's say there's a factory in your town that pollutes your neighborhood between 15:00 and 17:00 during workdays. Or let's assume that your neighbor is burning wood every evening at 19:00.
In such cases, you can strategically close all your windows to minimize the amount of particulate matter entering your home.
Windows can be opened up daily from 8:00 to 14:00, for example, if a close-by factory emits lots of air pollution in the late afternoon.
Make sure to reduce guesswork in relation to exposure levels to the minimum.
Get an air quality meter to be sure.
Closing windows while using air conditioning can reduce PM2.5 exposure by about 50% on average.
If your building lets through lots of particulate matter through cracks, that number will be lower. If no air comes through while your windows are closed, more than 50% of PM2.5 will be blocked.
Closing windows so that fewer PM2.5 particles enter the building can almost immediately improve some measurable variables such as "heart rate variability".[210; 211]
You can even make your home more airtight if you want to reduce particulate matter levels even further...
Please keep in mind that I'll never recommend keeping your windows closed at all times.
With closed windows, there's no new oxygen that can enter the house or CO2 that can be removed. Moreover, toxins that are created inside the home from cooking or that are emitted from furniture will also remain trapped and re-circulate.
If you use air conditioners - which are used in large parts of the warmer locations in the developed world - there will always be an exchange of air - preventing the effectiveness of this strategy.
Of course, air exchange locations of air conditioners can be ideal locations for filtering out particulate matter with an air purifier.
One more thing:
Completely airtight homes are not a perfect option, in my opinion. Why? Well, such homes might help you limit particulate matter from entering your home, but indoor oxygen levels will also be dramatically reduced in such instances - unless you put lots of plants inside your home.
The ultimate method for avoiding particulate matter exposure in the city is thus to create an airtight home with so many plants that CO2 is fully recycled into oxygen.
A man can dream...
A blue print for my home in 5 years? Time will tell...
While I don't see people wearing protective gear in Europe and the Americas, things are very different in the East.
Protective gear for your airways and lungs - or "respirators" - such as listed below can filter out 99% of PM2.5, for example:
Will you look crazy with such protection?
Nevertheless, I especially would highly recommend such protection in some circumstances.
If you're working construction and saw or grind material that emits lots of dust, I would never be without a respirator. Make sure you get the right fit, otherwise you won't experience the full benefits.
The downside of such filters is that they cannot adequately filter out gases.
Nevertheless, respirators have been demonstrated to work to increase heart health, for example - even reducing blood pressure in the short-term.
Of course, there's a huge social stigma when wearing such protective gear in the West.
If I were to wear such protective gear in nearby Amsterdam, I'd probably get arrested within 15 minutes because people would be thinking I'm about to commit a robbery (or terrorist attack).
Some people also just don't like wearing a respirator on their faces, which should also be taken into account. You can literally get claustrophobia by wearing a respirator.
Nevertheless, wearing protective gear for your airways is one important tool in your toolbox.
You can even wear a respirator when traveling to your job, for example, and use an air purifier at your job - which is the extent some people with lung or heart diseases have to go to remain relatively healthy.
Next, another possible game changer:
You can simply envision outdoor plants to be "air purifiers" that are placed outside your house.
Pines especially capture particulate matter well. You can buy pines that can grow on rooftops, such as:
Don't worry if you don't understand what these Latin plant names refer to - I don't either. Nevertheless, if you ask a professional gardener they'll probably know what to do if you tell them you want a very specific plant on your rooftop.
Pinus mugo, as I've been told
by mister Google
If you cover 90% of an average home's rooftop with such pine plants, up to 100 kilograms of PM10 and PM2.5 can be filtered out of the air over the course of a year.
Another strategy is to surround the perimeter of your home with conifer trees, which is also a pine class plant. Conifers have been proven to effectively filter the air from particulate matter.
Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), Hedera helix, also called "common ivy" or "English ivy" are additional great plants that you can place around your house.
Protecting plants from rain exposure increases the amount of particulate matter is effectively captured from the air. The reason is that rain removes some of the particulate matter that's captured by the plants again.
Of course, you cannot fully remove plants from rain exposure...
Placing plants closer to polluting areas - self-evidently - also increases plant's efficiency.
Not all plants are equally as effective in reducing particulate matter. Some types of plants re-emit the particulate matter they capture during warmer seasons.
Scots Pine - simple, but one of the kings of
outdoor air purification.
Unfortunately, studying the effects of vegetation on particulate matter reduction is still in its infancy. Nevertheless, almost all trees will reduce the amount of PM2.5 or PM10 that enters your home to some extent - some plants just do so better than others.
Combinations of several types of plants work best.
Even creating a "living wall" - literally a wall of vegetation - can dramatically reduce particulate matter exposure. Juniperus chinensis, or Chinese Juniper, is a great option for that - which is a pine plant again.
Other highly effective species for creating a living wall is:
If all roads had living walls like these,
particulate matter would be much less of a problem
The downside of plants?
Some people will have allergic reactions to having lots of plants in their vicinity. Whether increasing vegetation around your house is a solution thus depends on your personal context.
Nevertheless, if you're (mostly) allergy free, then surrounding your entire home with plants and plant walls can massively improve your particulate matter exposure levels...
But what if you can't do much with plants because you're living in a flat?
In that case:
Yes, air pollution does have political solutions (sometimes).
Remember that as an individual, you cannot accomplish anything in the political domain. As a group of people, especially those who are affected most by air pollution in a single area, you can change things.
The expansion of an airport, the creation of a new busy road near your neighborhood, or the construction of a new factory may be preventable if you band together in your community.
While this strategy is self-evident, I'd still decided to include it here. Again, remember that pollution that's emitted close to your living and working environment mostly predicts the PM
0.1 and PM2.5 levels there...
Lastly, another harm-reduction strategy:
Infrared one of the types of light that's emitted by the sun - the others being ultraviolet light (that give you a sunburn) and visible light (which makes up all the colors of the rainbow).
Some types of infrared light are actually what makes the sun feel warm to your skin - infrared light also literally penetrates into your body.
That infrared light is also used in "infrared saunas". And because infrared light heats up your body, it is an alternative sauna method than traditional saunas that use hot air.
Infrared light has actually been shown to aid in the detoxification of many substances.
Unfortunately, there's no direct evidence for infrared light expelling particulate matter from your body - the same is true for regular saunas. Nonetheless, it can reasonably be expected that infrared light expels particulate matter levels from your cells and helps your body detox.
Of course, sunlight is your best overall option for adding infrared light to your body.
One problem with air pollution is that smog can dramatically reduce the amount of sunlight that reaches the air's surface - a problem that I'll treat in my next blog post on air pollution in general.
I'd like to see studies on the detoxification of particulate matter in the near future, especially because this type of air pollution is so widespread...
As always, all roads lead to the sun...
In fact, particulate matter is so widespread that you'd have to ask ethical questions regarding its output - that's exactly what I'll do in the next section...
Want to get a few additional tips to further decrease your risks? Download the infographic below:
Remember the statistics: 800,000 deaths directly attributable to particulate matter per year, and almost 5 million lives cut short.
One reason for including this short ethical and political analysis of particulate matter in relation to the environment is because solutions to this problem are not always up to us.
You might be affected by air pollution while having no say in the matter at all...
While I'm oversimplifying here, famous 20th-century liberal philosopher John Rawls has claimed that societies should be set up in such a way so that human lives are ruled by circumstances as little as possible, so that each individual in a liberal society has the maximum amount of freedom.
Rawls accepted that some redistribution of economic goods might need to be introduced so that each individual would have their lives ruled as little as possible by circumstance.
From the political perspective of the West, Rawls is considered a more left-leaning thinker.
Translated to the problem of particulate matter, you could argue that from Rawls' philosophy, individuals in society might need to be compensated for the damage particulate matter does to them.
In a sense, because particulate matter damages individuals for which they are not compensated, and because your freedom as an individual is inhibited due to air pollution, particulate matter emissions are fundamentally unjust in a sense.
(I'll get back to why some people are hit harder by air pollution than others later on.)
A more libertarian principle of justice entails that aggression should not be permitted upon other members of society.
It's possible to make the case that emitting particulate matter actively harms other people - and can thus be considered an act of (minor) aggression...
Because particulate matter emissions are a form of aggression upon other members of society, victims should be compensated for the damage dealt upon them (or particulate matter emissions should be prohibited, which is less viable.)
That libertarian perspective is more right-leaning in Western societies (although it's also arguable that libertarianism transcends the left-right paradigm).
My point is that particulate matter can be considered problematic from both the left and right spectra of politics.
Why do people accept air pollution in society so easily then?
Emitting particulate matter is like buying palm oil that leads to the destruction of rain-forests: if you don't directly see the harm that's being done, you more prone to buy the palm oil anyway.
Of course, people also understand that particulate matter emissions are also harming people, but its nature is different than direct violence (such as assaulting someone).
Let me explain:
If I directly poison a few people with lead, the police will be at my doorstep pretty quickly. If I poison 100,000 people with just a little bit of lead through the air, however, I often won't have to pay for my deeds.
Let's explore that example further with a case study:
Let's also assume that I operate that factory for 30 years so that the negative consequences of the particulate matter are thinly spread out over a long period of time.
Fortunately, you now know that air pollution cuts peoples lives short, so the case study below should be telling.
Assume these facts:
Over the course of 30 years, 10,000 people who live very close the factory have their lives cut short by 3 months, 50,000 people living in a medium range lose 1 month of their lives, and 40,000 people have their lives cut short by two weeks.
Again, because the damage occurs over a 30 year period, no-one really notices the harm being done.
To ease calculation, let's also assume that 1 month consists of 4 weeks.
In the case sketched above, let's calculate how many weeks of time I remove from people's lives with my factory:
Overall, 120,000 + 200,000 + 80,000 = 400,000 weeks of human lives that are lost over a 30-year period.
Let's also say the average person becomes 80 years old in the area around the factory. For simplicity sake, assume that a year contains 50 weeks. In that case, one human life consist of 4,000 weeks.
Here comes the kicker:
Remember my factory shortened the lifespans of people in that area by 400,000 weeks over a 30-year period? 400,000 weeks / 4,000 week per lifetime = 100 lives being lost.
And yet, there's no police at my doorstep arresting me.
If you still think my scenario is some very out of the box fantasy, think again.
There are actual instances in which such a shift in mortality rates and health is observed, due to a factory temporarily closing because of strikes.
That sounds counter-intuitive but bear with me...
By emitting particulate matter into the air, someone profits in a society.
If I drive a car for 30 hours a week, I'm benefiting because I can drive my car. Other people are harmed because they live near the road I'm emitting that particulate matter on.
Someone who lives in the city and who bikes to their work does not emit much particulate matter at all (perhaps only in relation to the energy production they rely on), and has thus a net-negative contribution of particulate matter in that society.
The biking person is harmed on a relative basis because of particulate matter emissions, but never compensated.
The key here is to understand that not everyone produces particulate matter equally and is harmed equally.
Some people produce almost no particulate matter but are harmed quite a lot...
80% of this planet has never flown--20% of Americans have never flown.
And yet, if you've never flown your health is still negatively influenced to the same extent as people who do fly - often even more negatively influenced because as a poor person, you're more prone to live near the airport...
PM0.1 concentrations near airports can be 2 fold higher within a 4-kilometer distance from an airport, and 30% higher at 7 kilometers. In the direct vicinity of an airport, particulate matter concentrations can increase 10-fold.
Unfortunately, that particulate matter penetrates indoors as well.
If you're working at a minimum wage at a fast-food restaurant chain near an airport, you're taking a big hit to your health without being compensated for that particulate matter damage.
To make matters worse:
If air pollution was completely prohibited, no factory or car could function anymore.
The problem, in my mind, is not pollution per se, but that people are not compensated for the pollution they're exposed to in a just manner. Of course, measuring the pollution output of each individual in a given society would be almost impossible.
Solutions are possible though:
Up to 80% reductions in particulate matter concentrations can be achieved by technologies that are currently already available. The society-wide implementation of such technologies is partially responsible for the reduction in particulate matter concentrations in the EU.
One very successful intervention, installing particulate matter filters in diesel trucks and cars, have reduced their emissions by 95-99%.
Unfortunately, many people who have diesel motor vehicles are intentionally removing their filters. The reason for the removal is that these filters also need to be replaced over time, just as HEPA filters in your air purifier.
Buying a new air filter can be costly, and people don't buy a new one. Costs are leveled upon other members of society again...
Let's shortly go through three environmental effects one by one:
Firstly, particulate matter lowers the health of plants.[317; 320-322]
Particulate matter, for example, can lower the health of soils.
Crops themselves can also be directly damaged by particulate matter. Soils next to road have lower nutrient levels.
Bacteria and fungi in the soil are affected by particulate matter, for example, which will affect plant growth.
Additionally, particulate matter sometimes "covers" plants so that they receive less sunlight. Light is essential for plants to grow, and when plants are covered by dust they won't grow as well as they otherwise would.
The temperatures of leaves are also increased when more dust settles on them. Some sources argue that the dust increases rather than decreases light absorption, but that increase occurs in an unnatural way.
Secondly, particulate matter negatively affects water quality.[320; 323-326]
Water in your environment can become more acidic due to particulate matter settling there. Particulate matter also carries certain toxic metals such as aluminum or cadmium into the water supply.
Another effect is that even the nutrients in oceans and rivers are influenced by particulate matter. The quality of the seafood you're eating and the water you're drinking may thus be affected by particulate matter emissions of cars and factories.
Thirdly, even rain becomes different the more particulate matter emitted into the air.[318-320]
While it was previously believed that particulate matter causes "acid rain", that claim is criticized nowadays.
It is nevertheless clear that particulate matter changes the nature of our rain. Emitting lots of pollutants in the air does not make them disappear - that pollution will come down somewhere.
Many more environmental effects of particulate matter can be found.
Demonstration of that latter goal gives credence to the thesis that particulate matter is both an ethical and societal problem
Doing so would require a 2 million word blog post, instead of a 22,500 one...
Nevertheless, I hope that this small section has made you think about what a problem of justice particulate matter pollution can entail for society...
As you know by now, some particulate matter exposure is unavoidable - you also know that that exposure is a human tragedy...
And yet, there's no easy solution to the particulate matter problem: the entire modern economic system is indirectly based upon processes that produce particulate matter, such cars, industry, and energy production.
Governments only slowly manage to reduce particulate matter pollution - even in Western societies.
You also know by now that particulate matter also causes heart and lung disease, diabetes, cancer, brain problems, and much more.
Plant trees around your house, use air purifiers both at home and at work, take political action to prevent that busy road from going by your house, wear a respirator when you're in your car, exercise in nature, and eat a good diet.
Do what you need to do to take care of your health.
No-one is going to do that for you...
You've just got yourself one step closer to paradise
by reading this blog post...
Well, you can control how particulate matter affects you, and cut your exposure levels down with up to 90%.
That's a huge difference...
Even if you're living in a polluted metropolis, you may still be able to get your exposure levels down to the level of a Norwegian forest.
Will doing so cost some money? Sure: good air purification and related upkeep and energy costs, planting lots of trees, and making your house airtight are felt in your wallet.
But your health will thank you in the long run. And even though I've painted a bleak picture in this article, you can pull it off.
For God's sake, get a high-quality air purifier if you're living in a toxic city...
Starting to improve you air quality is like riding your bike for the first time - you might be scared at first, but with practice, you'll get effortless control and succeed automatically.
Begin today, not tomorrow.
You deserve it - and your health does too...
*Post can contain affiliate links. Read my affiliate, medical, and privacy disclosure for more information.
Author: Bart Wolbers. Bart finished degrees in Physical Therapy, Philosophy (BA and MA), Philosophy of Science and Technology (MSc - Cum Laude), and Clinical Health Science (MSc).
 Anderson JO, Thundiyil JG, Stolbach A. Clearing the air: a review of the effects of particulate matter air pollution on human health. J Med Toxicol. 2012 Jun;8(2):166-75. doi: 10.1007/s13181-011-0203-1.
 World Health Organization. Burden of disease from Ambient Air Pollution for 2012.
 World Health Organization. Burden of disease from ambient air pollution for 2016; Version 5 May 2018.
 Cohen AJ, Ross Anderson H, ... Smith K. The global burden of disease due to outdoor air pollution. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2005 Jul 9-23;68(13-14):1301-7.
 EPA. Air Quality Trends. Air Quality - National Summary.
 Europoean Environmental Agency. EEA Report No 13/2017.
 Baldacci S, Maio S, ... HEALS Study. Allergy and asthma: Effects of the exposure to particulate matter and biological allergens. Respir Med. 2015 Sep;109(9):1089-104. doi: 10.1016/j.rmed.2015.05.017. Epub 2015 May 22.
 Zahradnik E, Raulf M. Animal allergens and their presence in the environment.Front Immunol. 2014 Mar 3;5:76. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2014.00076. eCollection 2014.
 Salo PM, Zeldin DC. Does exposure to cats and dogs decrease the risk of allergic sensitization and disease? J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009 Oct;124(4):751-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2009.08.012.
 Ownby D, Johnson CC. Recent Understandings of Pet Allergies. F1000Res. 2016 Jan 27;5. pii: F1000 Faculty Rev-108. doi: 10.12688/f1000research.7044.1. eCollection 2016.
 Kankaria A, Nongkynrih B, Gupta SK. Indoor air pollution in India: implications on health and its control. Indian J Community Med. 2014 Oct;39(4):203-7. doi: 10.4103/0970-0218.143019.
 Dales R, Liu L, Wheeler AJ, Gilbert NL. Quality of indoor residential air and health. CMAJ. 2008 Jul 15;179(2):147-52. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.070359.
 Nemery B, Hoet PH, Nemmar A. The Meuse Valley fog of 1930: an air pollution disaster. Lancet. 2001 Mar 3;357(9257):704-8.
 Bell ML, Davis DL, Fletcher T. A retrospective assessment of mortality from the London smog episode of 1952: the role of influenza and pollution. Environ Health Perspect. 2004 Jan;112(1):6-8.
 Lowsen DH, Conway GA. Air Pollution in Major Chinese Cities: Some Progress, But Much More to Do. J Environ Prot (Irvine, Calif). 2016 Dec;7(13):2081-2094. doi: 10.4236/jep.2016.713162. Epub 2016 Dec 29.
 Weinhold B. EPA proposes tighter particulate air pollution standards. Environ Health Perspect. 2012 Sep;120(9):A348-9.
 EPA. National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter; Proposed Rule. Fed Reg 77(126):38889-39055 (2012)
 EPA. National Ambient Air Quality Standards, NAAQS Table.
 European Commission. Air Quality Standards.
 European Commission. Council Directive 1999/30/EC.
 European Commission. Council Directive 2008/50/EC.
 World Health Organization. Concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5).
 World Health Organization. Air quality guidelines for particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide. 2005.
 Rawls J. A Theory Of Justice. First ed. Belknap 1971.
 Locke J. Second Treatise on Government, 1689.
 Mill JS. On Liberty, 1859.
 Rothbard M. Egalitarianism as a Revolt Against Nature and Other Essays. 1963
 World Health Organization Europe. Health Effects Of Particulate Matter. Policy implications for countries in eastern Europe, Caucasus and central Asia.
 Report of a WHO Workshop. Health relevance of particulate matter from various sources. Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe, 2007.
 WHO Europe. Health risks of particulate matter from long-range transboundary air pollution. Joint WHO / Convention Task Force on the Health Aspects of Air Pollution. E88189 2006.
 Zeka A, Zanobetti A, Schwartz J. Short term effects of particulate matter on cause specific mortality: effects of lags and modification by city characteristics. Occup Environ Med. 2005 Oct;62(10):718-25.
 Achilleos S, Kioumourtzoglou MA,... Papatheodorou SI. Acute effects of fine particulate matter constituents on mortality: A systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Environ Int. 2017 Dec;109:89-100. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2017.09.010. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
 Atkinson RW, Mills IC, Walton HA, Anderson HR. Fine particle components and health--a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological time series studies of daily mortality and hospital admissions. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2015 Mar-Apr;25(2):208-14. doi: 10.1038/jes.2014.63. Epub 2014 Sep 17.
 Kloog I, Ridgway B, ... Schwartz JD. Long- and short-term exposure to PM2.5 and mortality: using novel exposure models. Epidemiology. 2013 Jul;24(4):555-61. doi: 10.1097/EDE.0b013e318294beaa.
 Blount RJ, Pascopella L, ... Nahid P. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and All-Cause Mortality during Tuberculosis Treatment in California. Environ Health Perspect. 2017 Sep 29;125(9):097026. doi: 10.1289/EHP1699.
 Mills IC, Atkinson RW, ... Strachan DP. Distinguishing the associations between daily mortality and hospital admissions and nitrogen dioxide from those of particulate matter: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2016 Jul 21;6(7):e010751. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010751.
 Franklin M, Zeka A, Schwartz J. Association between PM2.5 and all-cause and specific-cause mortality in 27 US communities. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology volume 17, 2007: 279–287.
 Pelucchi C, Negri E, ... La Vecchia C. Long-term particulate matter exposure and mortality: a review of European epidemiological studies. BMC Public Health. 2009 Dec 8;9:453. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-453.
 Li T, Yan M, Sun Q, Anderson GB. Mortality risks from a spectrum of causes associated with wide-ranging exposure to fine particulate matter: A case-crossover study in Beijing, China. Environ Int. 2018 Feb;111:52-59. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2017.10.023. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
 Puett RC, Hart JE, Suh H, Mittleman M, Laden F. Particulate matter exposures, mortality, and cardiovascular disease in the health professionals follow-up study. Environ Health Perspect. 2011 Aug;119(8):1130-5. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1002921. Epub 2011 Mar 31.
 Son JY, Bell ML. The relationships between short-term exposure to particulate matter and mortality in Korea: Impact of particulate matter exposure metrics for sub-daily exposures. Environ Res Lett. 2013 Mar;8(1):014015.
 Hart JE, Liao X, ... Laden F. The association of long-term exposure to PM2.5 on all-cause mortality in the Nurses' Health Study and the impact of measurement-error correction. Environ Health. 2015 May 1;14:38. doi: 10.1186/s12940-015-0027-6.
 Jiménez E, Linares C, Rodríguez LF, Bleda MJ, Díaz J. Short-term impact of particulate matter (PM2.5) on daily mortality among the over-75 age group in Madrid (Spain). Sci Total Environ. 2009 Oct 15;407(21):5486-92. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.06.038. Epub 2009 Jul 31.
 Badaloni C, Cesaroni G, ... Forastiere F. Effects of long-term exposure to particulate matter and metal components on mortality in the Rome longitudinal study. Environ Int. 2017 Dec;109:146-154. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2017.09.005. Epub 2017 Sep 30.
 Parker JD, Kravets N, Vaidyanathan A. Particulate Matter Air Pollution Exposure and Heart Disease Mortality Risks by Race and Ethnicity in the United States: 1997 to 2009 National Health Interview Survey With Mortality Follow-Up Through 2011. Circulation. 2018
 Kim OJ, Kim SY, Kim H. Association between Long-Term Exposure to Particulate Matter Air Pollution and Mortality in a South Korean National Cohort: Comparison across Different Exposure Assessment Approaches. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 Sep 23;14(10). pii: E1103. doi: 10.3390/ijerph14101103.
 Hansell A, Ghosh RE, ... Gulliver J. Historic air pollution exposure and long-term mortality risks in England and Wales: prospective longitudinal cohort study. Thorax. 2016 Apr;71(4):330-8. doi: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2015-207111. Epub 2016 Feb 8.
 Torjesen I. Current exposure to pollution has greater health impact than former exposure, study shows. BMJ. 2016 Feb 8;352:i807. doi: 10.1136/bmj.i807.
 Power MC, Lamichhane AP, ... Whitsel EA. The Association of Long-Term Exposure to Particulate Matter Air Pollution with Brain MRI Findings: The ARIC Study. Environ Health Perspect. 2018 Feb 16;126(2):027009. doi: 10.1289/EHP2152.
 Yin P, Brauer M, ... Zhou M. Long-term Fine Particulate Matter Exposure and Nonaccidental and Cause-specific Mortality in a Large National Cohort of Chinese Men. Environ Health Perspect. 2017 Nov 7;125(11):117002. doi: 10.1289/EHP1673.
 Zhang Z, Chan TC, ... Lao XQ. Long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with platelet counts in adults. Environ Pollut. 2018 Sep;240:432-439. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2018.04.123. Epub 2018 May 10.
 Qiu H, Schooling CM, ... Tian L. Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution and type 2 diabetes mellitus in elderly: A cohort study in Hong Kong. Environ Int. 2018 Apr;113:350-356. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2018.01.008. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
 Lim YH, Bae HJ, ... Hong YC. Vascular and cardiac autonomic function and PM2.5 constituents among the elderly: A longitudinal study. Sci Total Environ. 2017 Dec 31;607-608:847-854. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.07.077. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
 Kim H, Kim J, ... Chae IH. Cardiovascular Effects of Long-Term Exposure to Air Pollution: A Population-Based Study With 900 845 Person-Years of Follow-up. J Am Heart Assoc. 2017 Nov 8;6(11). pii: e007170. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.117.007170.
 Adhikari R, D'Souza J, ... Adar SD. Long-term Coarse Particulate Matter Exposure and Heart Rate Variability in the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Epidemiology. 2016 May;27(3):405-13. doi: 10.1097/EDE.0000000000000455.
 Zhang Z, Laden F, Forman JP, Hart JE. Long-Term Exposure to Particulate Matter and Self-Reported Hypertension: A Prospective Analysis in the Nurses' Health Study. Environ Health Perspect. 2016 Sep;124(9):1414-20. doi: 10.1289/EHP163. Epub 2016 May 13.
 Du Y, Xu X, ... Wang J. Air particulate matter and cardiovascular disease: the epidemiological, biomedical and clinical evidence. J Thorac Dis. 2016 Jan;8(1):E8-E19. doi: 10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2015.11.37.
 Martinelli N, Olivieri O, Girelli D. Air particulate matter and cardiovascular disease: a narrative review. Eur J Intern Med. 2013 Jun;24(4):295-302. doi: 10.1016/j.ejim.2013.04.001. Epub 2013 May 4.
 Cui Y, Sun Q, Liu Z. Ambient particulate matter exposure and cardiovascular diseases: a focus on progenitor and stem cells. J Cell Mol Med. 2016 May;20(5):782-93. doi: 10.1111/jcmm.12822. Epub 2016 Mar 14.
 Fiordelisi A, Piscitelli P, ... Sorriento D. The mechanisms of air pollution and particulate matter in cardiovascular diseases. Heart Fail Rev. 2017 May;22(3):337-347. doi: 10.1007/s10741-017-9606-7.
 An Z, Jin Y, ... Wu W. Impact of Particulate Air Pollution on Cardiovascular Health. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2018 Feb 22;18(3):15. doi: 10.1007/s11882-018-0768-8.
 Shanley RP, Hayes RB, ... Ahn J. Particulate Air Pollution and Clinical Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors. Epidemiology. 2016 Mar;27(2):291-8. doi: 10.1097/EDE.0000000000000426.
 Ostro BD, Feng WY, Broadwin R, Malig BJ, Green RS, Lipsett MJ. The impact of components of fine particulate matter on cardiovascular mortality in susceptible subpopulations. Occup Environ Med. 2008 Nov;65(11):750-6. doi: 10.1136/oem.2007.036673. Epub 2008 Apr 16.
 Nasser Z, Salameh P, ... Leveque A. Outdoor particulate matter (PM) and associated cardiovascular diseases in the Middle East. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2015;28(4):641-61. doi: 10.13075/ijomeh.1896.00186.
 Fang SC, Cassidy A, Christiani DC. A systematic review of occupational exposure to particulate matter and cardiovascular disease. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2010 Apr;7(4):1773-806. doi: 10.3390/ijerph7041773. Epub 2010 Apr 19.
 Rao X, Zhong J, Brook RD, Rajagopalan S. Effect of Particulate Matter Air Pollution on Cardiovascular Oxidative Stress Pathways. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2018 Mar 20;28(9):797-818. doi: 10.1089/ars.2017.7394. Epub 2017 Dec 12.
 Li H, Cai J, ... Kan H. Particulate Matter Exposure and Stress Hormone Levels: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Trial of Air Purification. Circulation. 2017 Aug 15;136(7):618-627. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.116.026796.
 Hicken MT, Dvonch JT, Schulz AJ, Mentz G, Max P. Fine particulate matter air pollution and blood pressure: the modifying role of psychosocial stress. Environ Res. 2014 Aug;133:195-203. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2014.06.001. Epub 2014 Jun 24.
 Crobeddu B, Aragao-Santiago L, Bui LC, Boland S, Baeza Squiban A. Oxidative potential of particulate matter 2.5 as predictive indicator of cellular stress. Environ Pollut. 2017 Nov;230:125-133. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2017.06.051. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
 Crobeddu B, Aragao-Santiago L, Bui LC, Boland S, Baeza Squiban A. Oxidative potential of particulate matter 2.5 as predictive indicator of cellular stress. Environ Pollut. 2017 Nov;230:125-133. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2017.06.051. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
 Piao MJ, Ahn MJ, ... Hyun JW. Particulate matter 2.5 damages skin cells by inducing oxidative stress, subcellular organelle dysfunction, and apoptosis. Arch Toxicol. 2018 Jun;92(6):2077-2091. doi: 10.1007/s00204-018-2197-9. Epub 2018 Mar 26.
 Pohl D, Benseler S. Systemic inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Handb Clin Neurol. 2013;112:1243-52. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-52910-7.00047-7.
 Multhoff G, Molls M, Radons J. Chronic inflammation in cancer development. Front Immunol. 2012 Jan 12;2:98. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2011.00098. eCollection 2011.
 Amor S, Puentes F, Baker D, van der Valk P. Inflammation in neurodegenerative diseases. Immunology. 2010 Feb;129(2):154-69. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2567.2009.03225.x.
 MohanKumar SM, Campbell A, Block M, Veronesi B. Particulate matter, oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. Neurotoxicology. 2008 May;29(3):479-88. doi: 10.1016/j.neuro.2007.12.004. Epub 2008 Jan 4.
 Lawal AO. Air particulate matter induced oxidative stress and inflammation in cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis: The role of Nrf2 and AhR-mediated pathways. Toxicol Lett. 2017 Mar 15;270:88-95. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2017.01.017. Epub 2017 Feb 9.
 Fagundes LS, Fleck Ada S, ... Rhoden CR. Direct contact with particulate matter increases oxidative stress in different brain structures. Inhal Toxicol. 2015;27(10):462-7. doi: 10.3109/08958378.2015.1060278. Epub 2015 Sep 1.
 Xia T, Kovochich M, Nel A. The role of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress in mediating particulate matter injury. Clin Occup Environ Med. 2006;5(4):817-36.
 Watterson TL, Hamilton B, Martin R, Coulombe RA Jr. Urban particulate matter causes ER stress and the unfolded protein response in human lung cells. Toxicol Sci. 2009 Nov;112(1):111-22. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfp186. Epub 2009 Aug 12.
 Hong Z, Guo Z, ... Deng C. Airborne Fine Particulate Matter Induces Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Human Nasal Epithelial Cells. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2016 Jun;239(2):117-25. doi: 10.1620/tjem.239.117.
 Ailshire J, Karraker A, Clarke P. Neighborhood social stressors, fine particulate matter air pollution, and cognitive function among older U.S. adults. Soc Sci Med. 2017 Jan;172:56-63. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2016.11.019. Epub 2016 Nov 14.
 Laing S, Wang G, ... Zhang K. Airborne particulate matter selectively activates endoplasmic reticulum stress response in the lung and liver tissues. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2010 Oct;299(4):C736-49. doi: 10.1152/ajpcell.00529.2009. Epub 2010 Jun 16.
 Brunst KJ, Sanchez-Guerra M, ... Wright RJ. Prenatal particulate matter exposure and mitochondrial dysfunction at the maternal-fetal interface: Effect modification by maternal lifetime trauma and child sex. Environ Int. 2018 Mar;112:49-58. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2017.12.020. Epub 2017 Dec 15.
 Golomb E, Matza D,... Shapira OM. Myocardial mitochondrial injury induced by pulmonary exposure to particulate matter in rats. Toxicol Pathol. 2012 Jul;40(5):779-88. doi: 10.1177/0192623312441409. Epub 2012 May 1.
 Malinska D, Szymański J,... Wieckowski MR. Assessment of mitochondrial function following short- and long-term exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells to total particulate matter from a candidate modified-risk tobacco product and reference cigarettes. Food Chem Toxicol. 2018 May;115:1-12. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2018.02.013. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
 Nichols CE, Shepherd DL, ... Hollander JM. Cardiac and mitochondrial dysfunction following acute pulmonary exposure to mountaintop removal mining particulate matter. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2015 Dec 15;309(12):H2017-30. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00353.2015. Epub 2015 Oct 23.
 Soberanes S, Gonzalez A, Urich D, ... Budinger GR. Particulate matter Air Pollution induces hypermethylation of the p16 promoter Via a mitochondrial ROS-JNK-DNMT1 pathway. Sci Rep. 2012;2:275. doi: 10.1038/srep00275. Epub 2012 Feb 17.
 Hou L, Zhu ZZ, Zhang X, ... Baccarelli A. Airborne particulate matter and mitochondrial damage: a cross-sectional study. Environ Health. 2010 Aug 9;9:48. doi: 10.1186/1476-069X-9-48.
 Bhargava A, Tamrakar S, ... Mishra PK. Ultrafine particulate matter impairs mitochondrial redox homeostasis and activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase mediated DNA damage responses in lymphocytes. Environ Pollut. 2018 Mar;234:406-419. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2017.11.093. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
 Xia T, Kovochich M, Nel AE. Impairment of mitochondrial function by particulate matter (PM) and their toxic components: implications for PM-induced cardiovascular and lung disease. Front Biosci. 2007 Jan 1;12:1238-46.
 Janssen BG, Byun HM, ... Nawrot TS. Placental mitochondrial methylation and exposure to airborne particulate matter in the early life environment: An ENVIRONAGE birth cohort study. Epigenetics. 2015;10(6):536-44. doi: 10.1080/15592294.2015.1048412.
 Yang X, Feng L ... Sun Z. Cytotoxicity induced by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) via mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway in human cardiomyocytes. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2018 Jun 6;161:198-207. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.05.092.
 Nelin TD, Joseph AM, Gorr MW, Wold LE. Direct and indirect effects of particulate matter on the cardiovascular system. Toxicol Lett. 2012 Feb 5;208(3):293-9. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2011.11.008. Epub 2011 Nov 18.
 Folino AF, Scapellato ML,... Lotti M. Individual exposure to particulate matter and the short-term arrhythmic and autonomic profiles in patients with myocardial infarction. Eur Heart J. 2009 Jul;30(13):1614-20. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehp136. Epub 2009 May 2.
 Wu S, Deng F, Niu J, Huang Q, Liu Y, Guo X. The relationship between traffic-related air pollutants and cardiac autonomic function in a panel of healthy adults: a further analysis with existing data. Inhal Toxicol. 2011 Apr;23(5):289-303. doi: 10.3109/08958378.2011.568976.
 Loane C, Pilinis C, Lekkas TD, Politis M. Ambient particulate matter and its potential neurological consequences. Rev Neurosci. 2013;24(3):323-35. doi: 10.1515/revneuro-2013-0001.
 Wang Y, Xiong L, Tang M. Toxicity of inhaled particulate matter on the central nervous system: neuroinflammation, neuropsychological effects and neurodegenerative disease. J Appl Toxicol. 2017 Jun;37(6):644-667. doi: 10.1002/jat.3451. Epub 2017 Mar 16.
 Bhatt DP, Puig KL, ... Combs CK. A pilot study to assess effects of long-term inhalation of airborne particulate matter on early Alzheimer-like changes in the mouse brain. PLoS One. 2015 May 20;10(5):e0127102. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0127102. eCollection 2015.
 Wang BR, Shi JQ, ... Zhang YD. PM2.5 exposure aggravates oligomeric amyloid beta-induced neuronal injury and promotes NLRP3 inflammasome activation in an in vitro model of Alzheimer's disease. J Neuroinflammation. 2018 May 2;15(1):132. doi: 10.1186/s12974-018-1178-5.
 Palacios N, Fitzgerald KC, ... Laden F. Particulate matter and risk of Parkinson disease in a large prospective study of women. Environ Health. 2014 Oct 7;13:80. doi: 10.1186/1476-069X-13-80.
 Palacios N. Air pollution and Parkinson's disease - evidence and future directions. Rev Environ Health. 2017 Dec 20;32(4):303-313. doi: 10.1515/reveh-2017-0009.
 Kim SY, Kim JK, ... Park MK. Effects of inhaled particulate matter on the central nervous system in mice.Neurotoxicology. 2018 Jul;67:169-177. doi: 10.1016/j.neuro.2018.06.001. Epub 2018 Jun 4.
 Kulas JA, Hettwer JV, ... Combs CK. In utero exposure to fine particulate matter results in an altered neuroimmune phenotype in adult mice. Environ Pollut. 2018 Oct;241:279-288. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2018.05.047. Epub 2018 May 22.
 Verones B, Oortgiesen M. Neurogenic inflammation and particulate matter (PM) air pollutants. Neurotoxicology. 2001 Dec;22(6):795-810.
 Wyzga RE, Rohr AC. Long-term particulate matter exposure: Attributing health effects to individual PM components. J Air & Waste Management Association 65(5) 2015 523-543.
 Wilker EH, Preis SR, ... Mittleman MA. Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter, residential proximity to major roads and measures of brain structure. Stroke. 2015 May;46(5):1161-6. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.008348.
 Schmidt S. Particulate Matter and Cognition: Using Brain Imaging to Study Impacts of Air Pollution. Environ Health Perspect. 2018 Jun 8;126(6):064003. doi: 10.1289/EHP3445. eCollection 2018 Jun.
 Wilker EH, Martinez-Ramirez S, Kloog ... Viswanathan A. Fine Particulate Matter, Residential Proximity to Major Roads, and Markers of Small Vessel Disease in a Memory Study Population. J Alzheimers Dis. 2016 Jun 30;53(4):1315-23. doi: 10.3233/JAD-151143.
 Weuve J, Puett RC, ... Grodstein F. Exposure to particulate air pollution and cognitive decline in older women. Arch Intern Med. 2012 Feb 13;172(3):219-27. doi: 10.1001/archinternmed.2011.683.
 Brockmeyer S, D'Angiulli A. How air pollution alters brain development: the role of neuroinflammation. Transl Neurosci. 2016 Mar 21;7(1):24-30. doi: 10.1515/tnsci-2016-0005. eCollection 2016.
 Scheers H, Jacobs L, Casas L, Nemery B, Nawrot TS. Long-Term Exposure to Particulate Matter Air Pollution Is a Risk Factor for Stroke: Meta-Analytical Evidence. Stroke. 2015 Nov;46(11):3058-66. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.115.009913. Epub 2015 Oct 13.
 Guxens M, Lubczyńska MJ, ... El Marroun H. Air Pollution Exposure During Fetal Life, Brain Morphology, and Cognitive Function in School-Age Children. Biol Psychiatry. 2018 Aug 15;84(4):295-303. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2018.01.016. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
 Ailshire JA, Clarke P. Fine particulate matter air pollution and cognitive function among U.S. older adults. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2015 Mar;70(2):322-8. doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbu064. Epub 2014 Jun 6.
 Campbell A, Oldham M, ... Kleinman M. Particulate matter in polluted air may increase biomarkers of inflammation in mouse brain. Neurotoxicology. 2005 Jan;26(1):133-40.
 Cacciottolo M, Wang X, ... Chen JC. Particulate air pollutants, APOE alleles and their contributions to cognitive impairment in older women and to amyloidogenesis in experimental models. Transl Psychiatry. 2017 Jan 31;7(1):e1022. doi: 10.1038/tp.2016.280.
 Guo L, Zhu N, Guo Z, Li GK, Chen C, Sang N, Yao QC. Particulate matter (PM10) exposure induces endothelial dysfunction and inflammation in rat brain. J Hazard Mater. 2012 Apr 30;213-214:28-37. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.01.034. Epub 2012 Jan 20.
 Campbell A, Araujo JA, Li H, Sioutas C, Kleinman M. Particulate matter induced enhancement of inflammatory markers in the brains of apolipoprotein E knockout mice. J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2009 Aug;9(8):5099-104.
 Newell K, Kartsonaki C, Lam KBH, Kurmi OP. Cardiorespiratory health effects of particulate ambient air pollution exposure in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Planet Health. 2017 Dec;1(9):e368-e380. doi: 10.1016/S2542-5196(17)30166-3. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
 Requia WJ, Adams MD, ... Mahmoud M. Global Association of Air Pollution and Cardiorespiratory Diseases: A Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis, and Investigation of Modifier Variables. Am J Public Health. 2018 Apr;108(S2):S123-S130. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2017.303839. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
 Fajersztajn L, Saldiva P, ... Buehler AM. Short-term effects of fine particulate matter pollution on daily health events in Latin America: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Public Health. 2017 Sep;62(7):729-738. doi: 10.1007/s00038-017-0960-y. Epub 2017 Mar 2.
 Li J, Sun S, ... Tian L. Major air pollutants and risk of COPD exacerbations: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2016 Dec 12;11:3079-3091. doi: 10.2147/COPD.S122282. eCollection 2016.
 Liu Q, Xu C, ... Zhao P. Effect of exposure to ambient PM2.5 pollution on the risk of respiratory tract diseases: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. J Biomed Res. 2017 Jan 19;31(2):130-142. doi: 10.7555/JBR.31.20160071.
 Xing YF, Xu YH, Shi MH, Lian YX. The impact of PM2.5 on the human respiratory system. J Thorac Dis. 2016 Jan;8(1):E69-74. doi: 10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2016.01.19.
 Lim H, Kwon HJ, ... Choi WJ. Short-term Effect of Fine Particulate Matter on Children's Hospital Admissions and Emergency Department Visits for Asthma: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. J Prev Med Public Health. 2016 Jul;49(4):205-19. doi: 10.3961/jpmph.16.037.
 Paulin L, Hansel N. Particulate air pollution and impaired lung function. F1000Res. 2016 Feb 22;5. pii: F1000 Faculty Rev-201. doi: 10.12688/f1000research.7108.1. eCollection 2016.
 Hamra GB, Guha N, Cohen A, ... Loomis D. Outdoor particulate matter exposure and lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Health Perspect. 2014 Sep;122(9):906-11. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1408092. Epub 2014 Jun 6.
 Hamra GB, Guha N, ... Loomis D. Outdoor particulate matter exposure and lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Health Perspect. 2014 Sep;122(9):906-11. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1408092. Epub 2014 Jun 6.
 Bloemsma LD, Hoek G, Smit LAM. Panel studies of air pollution in patients with COPD: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Res. 2016 Nov;151:458-468. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2016.08.018. Epub 2016 Aug 24.
 Roy A, Hu W, Wei F, Korn L, Chapman RS, Zhang JJ. Ambient particulate matter and lung function growth in Chinese children. Epidemiology. 2012 May;23(3):464-72. doi: 10.1097/EDE.0b013e31824cbd6d.
 de Hartog JJ, Ayres JG, ... Hoek G. Lung function and indicators of exposure to indoor and outdoor particulate matter among asthma and COPD patients. Occup Environ Med. 2010 Jan;67(1):2-10. doi: 10.1136/oem.2008.040857. Epub 2009 Sep 6.
 Koenig JQ, Larson TV, ... Pierson WE. Pulmonary function changes in children associated with fine particulate matter. Environ Res. 1993 Oct;63(1):26-38.
 Guo C1, Zhang Z1, ... Lao XQ. Effect of long-term exposure to fine particulate matter on lung function decline and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Taiwan: a longitudinal, cohort study. Lancet Planet Health. 2018 Mar;2(3):e114-e125. doi: 10.1016/S2542-5196(18)30028-7. Epub 2018 Mar 2.
 Horak F Jr, Studnicka M, ... Frischer T. Particulate matter and lung function growth in children: a 3-yr follow-up study in Austrian schoolchildren. Eur Respir J. 2002 May;19(5):838-45.
 Wang C, Cai J,... Kan H. Personal exposure to fine particulate matter, lung function and serum club cell secretory protein (Clara). Environ Pollut. 2017 Jun;225:450-455. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2017.02.068. Epub 2017 Mar 9.
 Ibhafidon LI, Obaseki DO, ... Obioh I. Respiratory symptoms, lung function and particulate matter pollution in residential indoor environment in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Niger Med J. 2014 Jan;55(1):48-53. doi: 10.4103/0300-1652.128164.
 Kim JH, Lim DH, Kim JK, Jeong SJ, Son BK. Effects of particulate matter (PM10) on the pulmonary function of middle-school children. J Korean Med Sci. 2005 Feb;20(1):42-5.
 Wu S, Deng F, ... Guo X. Fine particulate matter, temperature, and lung function in healthy adults: findings from the HVNR study. Chemosphere. 2014 Aug;108:168-74. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.01.032. Epub 2014 Feb 16.
 Tashakkor AY, Chow KS, Carlsten C. Modification by antioxidant supplementation of changes in human lung function associated with air pollutant exposure: a systematic review. BMC Public Health. 2011 Jul 5;11:532. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-532.
 Bloemsma LD, Hoek G, Smit LAM. Panel studies of air pollution in patients with COPD: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Res. 2016 Nov;151:458-468. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2016.08.018. Epub 2016 Aug 24.
 Chen H, Goldberg MS, Villeneuve PJ. A systematic review of the relation between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and chronic diseases. Rev Environ Health. 2008 Oct-Dec;23(4):243-97.
 Ali MU, Liu G, ... Munir MAM. A systematic review on global pollution status of particulate matter-associated potential toxic elements and health perspectives in urban environment. Environ Geochem Health. 2018 Oct 8. doi: 10.1007/s10653-018-0203-z.
 Cui P, Huang Y, Han J, Song F, Chen K. Ambient particulate matter and lung cancer incidence and mortality: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Eur J Public Health. 2015 Apr;25(2):324-9. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/cku145. Epub 2014 Sep 8.
 Carter E, Norris C, ... Baumgartner J. Assessing Exposure to Household Air Pollution: A Systematic Review and Pooled Analysis of Carbon Monoxide as a Surrogate Measure of Particulate Matter. Environ Health Perspect. 2017 Jul 28;125(7):076002. doi: 10.1289/EHP767.
 Ngoc LTN, Park D, Lee Y, Lee YC. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Human Skin Diseases Due to Particulate Matter. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 Nov 25;14(12). pii: E1458. doi: 10.3390/ijerph14121458.
 Coker E, Kizito S. A Narrative Review on the Human Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Urgent Need for Health Effects Studies. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018 Mar 1;15(3). pii: E427. doi: 10.3390/ijerph15030427.
 Barone-Adesi F, Dent JE, ... Whincup PH. Long-Term Exposure to Primary Traffic Pollutants and Lung Function in Children: Cross-Sectional Study and Meta-Analysis. PLoS One. 2015 Nov 30;10(11):e0142565. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0142565. eCollection 2015.
 Fan J, Li S, ... Yang K. The impact of PM2.5 on asthma emergency department visits: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2016 Jan;23(1):843-50. doi: 10.1007/s11356-015-5321-x. Epub 2015 Sep 8.
 Khalili R, Bartell SM, ... Vieira VM. Early-life exposure to PM2.5 and risk of acute asthma clinical encounters among children in Massachusetts: a case-crossover analysis. Environ Health. 2018 Feb 21;17(1):20. doi: 10.1186/s12940-018-0361-6.
 Khreis H, Kelly C, ... Nieuwenhuijsen M. Exposure to traffic-related air pollution and risk of development of childhood asthma: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Int. 2017 Mar;100:1-31. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2016.11.012. Epub 2016 Nov 21.
 Hehua Z, Qing C, ... Yuhong Z. The impact of prenatal exposure to air pollution on childhood wheezing and asthma: A systematic review. Environ Res. 2017 Nov;159:519-530. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2017.08.038. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
 Vernon MK, Wiklund I, Bell JA, Dale P, Chapman KR. What do we know about asthma triggers? a review of the literature. J Asthma. 2012 Dec;49(10):991-8. doi: 10.3109/02770903.2012.738268.
 Cao Q, Rui G, Liang Y. Study on PM2.5 pollution and the mortality due to lung cancer in China based on geographic weighted regression model. BMC Public Health. 2018 Jul 27;18(1):925. doi: 10.1186/s12889-018-5844-4.
 Hoek G, Krishnan RM, ... Kaufman JD. Long-term air pollution exposure and cardio- respiratory mortality: a review. Environ Health. 2013 May 28;12(1):43. doi: 10.1186/1476-069X-12-43.
 Whyand T, Hurst JR, Beckles M, Caplin ME. Pollution and respiratory disease: can diet or supplements help? A review. Respir Res. 2018 May 2;19(1):79. doi: 10.1186/s12931-018-0785-0.
 Consonni D, Carugno M, ... Landi MT. Outdoor particulate matter (PM10) exposure and lung cancer risk in the EAGLE study. PLoS One. 2018 Sep 14;13(9):e0203539. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0203539. eCollection 2018.
 Lamichhane DK, Kim HC, ... Park SM. Lung Cancer Risk and Residential Exposure to Air Pollution: A Korean Population-Based Case-Control Study. Yonsei Med J. 2017 Nov;58(6):1111-1118. doi: 10.3349/ymj.2017.58.6.1111.
 Shin J, Park JY, Choi J. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollutants and mental health status: A nationwide population-based cross-sectional study. PLoS One. 2018 Apr 9;13(4):e0195607. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0195607. eCollection 2018.
 Sheffield PE, Speranza R, ... Wright RJ. Association between particulate air pollution exposure during pregnancy and postpartum maternal psychological functioning. PLoS One. 2018 Apr 18;13(4):e0195267. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0195267. eCollection 2018.
 Gao Q, Xu Q, ... Zhu H. Particulate matter air pollution associated with hospital admissions for mental disorders: A time-series study in Beijing, China. Eur Psychiatry. 2017 Jul;44:68-75. doi: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2017.02.492. Epub 2017 Apr 7.
 Peixoto MS, de Oliveira Galvão MF, Batistuzzo de Medeiros SR. Cell death pathways of particulate matter toxicity. Chemosphere. 2017 Dec;188:32-48. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.08.076. Epub 2017 Aug 22.
 Baccarelli A, Martinelli I, ... Schwartz J. Exposure to particulate air pollution and risk of deep vein thrombosis. Arch Intern Med. 2008 May 12;168(9):920-7. doi: 10.1001/archinte.168.9.920.
 Valavanidis A, Fiotakis K, Vlachogianni T. Airborne particulate matter and human health: toxicological assessment and importance of size and composition of particles for oxidative damage and carcinogenic mechanisms. J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev. 2008 Oct-Dec;26(4):339-62. doi: 10.1080/10590500802494538.
 Mehta M, Chen LC, Gordon T, Rom W, Tang MS. Particulate matter inhibits DNA repair and enhances mutagenesis. Mutat Res. 2008 Dec 8;657(2):116-21. doi: 10.1016/j.mrgentox.2008.08.015. Epub 2008 Aug 29.
 Somers CM, McCarry BE, Malek F, Quinn JS. Reduction of particulate air pollution lowers the risk of heritable mutations in mice. Science. 2004 May 14;304(5673):1008-10.
 Risom L, Møller P, Loft S. Oxidative stress-induced DNA damage by particulate air pollution. Mutat Res. 2005 Dec 30;592(1-2):119-37. Epub 2005 Aug 8.
 Dominici F, Greenstone M, Sunstein CR. Science and regulation. Particulate matter matters. Science. 2014 Apr 18;344(6181):257-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1247348.
 Tomczak A, Miller AB, ... Villeneuve PJ. Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution and the risk of lung cancer among participants of the Canadian National Breast Screening Study. Int J Cancer. 2016 Nov 1;139(9):1958-66. doi: 10.1002/ijc.30255. Epub 2016 Aug 4.
 Liu C , Xu X, ... Rajagopalan S. Air pollution-mediated susceptibility to inflammation and insulin resistance: influence of CCR2 pathways in mice. Environ Health Perspect. 2014 Jan;122(1):17-26. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1306841. Epub 2013 Oct 22.
 Brauer M, Avila-Casado C, ... Churg A. Air pollution and retained particles in the lung. Environ Health Perspect. 2001 Oct;109(10):1039-43.
 Schulz H. Fine particulate matter - a health hazard for lungs and other organs?. Pneumologie. 2006 Oct;60(10):611-5.
 Choi H, Wang L, Lin X, Spengler JD, Perera FP. Fetal window of vulnerability to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on proportional intrauterine growth restriction. PLoS One. 2012;7(4):e35464. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0035464. Epub 2012 Apr 24.
 Dejmek J, Selevan SG, Benes I, Solanský I, Srám RJ. Fetal growth and maternal exposure to particulate matter during pregnancy. Environ Health Perspect. 1999 Jun;107(6):475-80.
 Han Y, Ji Y, ... Xia Y. Effects of particulate matter exposure during pregnancy on birth weight: A retrospective cohort study in Suzhou, China. Sci Total Environ. 2018 Feb 15;615:369-374. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.236. Epub 2017 Oct 4.
 Giovannini N, Schwartz L, ... Cetin I. Particulate matter (PM10) exposure, birth and fetal-placental weight and umbilical arterial pH: results from a prospective study. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2018 Mar;31(5):651-655. doi: 10.1080/14767058.2017.1293032. Epub 2017 Apr 10.
 Pearce MS, Glinianaia SV, ... Pless-Mulloli T. Particulate matter exposure during pregnancy is associated with birth weight, but not gestational age, 1962-1992: a cohort study. Environ Health. 2012 Mar 9;11:13. doi: 10.1186/1476-069X-11-13.
 Ren Z, Zhu J, ... Wang J. Maternal exposure to ambient PM10 during pregnancy increases the risk of congenital heart defects: Evidence from machine learning models. Sci Total Environ. 2018 Jul 15;630:1-10. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.02.181. Epub 2018 Feb 19.
 Song J, Chen Y, ... Kong YY. Early-life exposure to air pollutants and adverse pregnancy outcomes: protocol for a prospective cohort study in Beijing. BMJ Open. 2017 Sep 3;7(9):e015895. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-015895.
 Symanski E, Davila M, ... Lai D. Maternal exposure to fine particulate pollution during narrow gestational periods and newborn health in Harris County, Texas. Matern Child Health J. 2014 Oct;18(8):2003-12. doi: 10.1007/s10995-014-1446-7.
 Jedrychowski WA, Perera FP,... Spengler JD. Effect of prenatal exposure to fine particulate matter on ventilatory lung function of preschool children of non-smoking mothers. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2010 Sep;24(5):492-501. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3016.2010.01136.x.
 Sack C, Goss CH. It Starts at the Beginning: Effect of Particulate Matter In Utero. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015 Nov 1;192(9):1025-6. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201507-1468ED.
 Trasande L, Malecha P, Attina TM. Particulate Matter Exposure and Preterm Birth: Estimates of U.S. Attributable Burden and Economic Costs. Environ Health Perspect. 2016 Dec;124(12):1913-1918. Epub 2016 Mar 29.
 Malley CS, Kuylenstierna JC, ... Ashmore MR. Preterm birth associated with maternal fine particulate matter exposure: A global, regional and national assessment. Environ Int. 2017 Apr;101:173-182. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2017.01.023. Epub 2017 Feb 10.
 DeFranco E, Moravec W, ... Chen A. Exposure to airborne particulate matter during pregnancy is associated with preterm birth: a population-based cohort study. Environ Health. 2016 Jan 15;15:6. doi: 10.1186/s12940-016-0094-3.
 Sun X, Luo X, ... Liu T. The association between fine particulate matter exposure during pregnancy and preterm birth: a meta-analysis. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2015 Nov 18;15:300. doi: 10.1186/s12884-015-0738-2.
 Magnani ND, Muresan XM, ... Valacchi G. Skin Damage Mechanisms Related to Airborne Particulate Matter Exposure. Toxicol Sci. 2016 Jan;149(1):227-36. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfv230. Epub 2015 Oct 26.
 Wang T, Chiang ET, ... Garcia JG. Particulate matter disrupts human lung endothelial barrier integrity via ROS- and p38 MAPK-dependent pathways. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2010 Apr;42(4):442-9. doi: 10.1165/rcmb.2008-0402OC. Epub 2009 Jun 11.
 Bräuner EV, Mortensen J, ... Loft S. Effects of ambient air particulate exposure on blood-gas barrier permeability and lung function. Inhal Toxicol. 2009 Jan;21(1):38-47. doi: 10.1080/08958370802304735 .
 Wang T, Wang L, ... Garcia JG. Particulate matter air pollution disrupts endothelial cell barrier via calpain-mediated tight junction protein degradation. Part Fibre Toxicol. 2012 Aug 29;9:35. doi: 10.1186/1743-8977-9-35.
 Kaplan GG, Szyszkowicz M, ... Storr M. Non-specific abdominal pain and air pollution: a novel association. PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e47669. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047669. Epub 2012 Oct 31.
 Kish L, Hotte N, ... Madsen KL. Environmental particulate matter induces murine intestinal inflammatory responses and alters the gut microbiome. PLoS One. 2013 Apr 24;8(4):e62220. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062220. Print 2013.
 Salim SY, Kaplan GG, Madsen KL. Air pollution effects on the gut microbiota: a link between exposure and inflammatory disease. Gut Microbes. 2014 Mar-Apr;5(2):215-9. doi: 10.4161/gmic.27251. Epub 2013 Dec 20.
 Marynowski M, Likońska A, Zatorski H, Fichna J. Role of environmental pollution in irritable bowel syndrome. World J Gastroenterol. 2015 Oct 28;21(40):11371-8. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i40.11371.
 Yoshizaki K, Brito JM, ... Macchione M. The effects of particulate matter on inflammation of respiratory system: Differences between male and female. Sci Total Environ. 2017 May 15;586:284-295. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.01.221. Epub 2017 Feb 4.
 Tamagawa E, Bai N, ... van Eeden SF. Particulate matter exposure induces persistent lung inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2008 Jul;295(1):L79-85. doi: 10.1152/ajplung.00048.2007. Epub 2008 May 9.
 Wang J, Huang J, ... Song Y. Urban particulate matter triggers lung inflammation via the ROS-MAPK-NF-κB signaling pathway. Thorac Dis. 2017 Nov;9(11):4398-4412. doi: 10.21037/jtd.2017.09.135.
 Tamagawa E1, Bai N, ... van Eeden SF. Particulate matter exposure induces persistent lung inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2008 Jul;295(1):L79-85. doi: 10.1152/ajplung.00048.2007. Epub 2008 May 9.
 Farina F, Sancini G, ... Palestini P. Milano summer particulate matter (PM10) triggers lung inflammation and extra pulmonary adverse events in mice. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e56636. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056636. Epub 2013 Feb 25.
 Morishita M, Keeler G, ... Harkema J. Pulmonary retention of particulate matter is associated with airway inflammation in allergic rats exposed to air pollution in urban Detroit. Inhal Toxicol. 2004 Sep;16(10):663-74.
 Hwang SH, Park JB, Lee KJ. Exposure assessment of particulate matter and blood chromium levels in people living near a cement plant. Environ Geochem Health. 2018 Aug;40(4):1237-1246. doi: 10.1007/s10653-017-0039-y. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
 Byrd JB, Morishita M, ... Brook RD. Acute increase in blood pressure during inhalation of coarse particulate matter air pollution from an urban location. J Am Soc Hypertens. 2016 Feb;10(2):133-139.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.jash.2015.11.015. Epub 2015 Nov 26.
 Seaton A, Soutar A, ... Stout R. Particulate air pollution and the blood. Thorax. 1999 Nov;54(11):1027-32.
 Sørensen M, Daneshvar B, ... Loft S. Personal PM2.5 exposure and markers of oxidative stress in blood. Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Feb;111(2):161-6.
 Steenhof M, Janssen NA, ... Brunekreef B. Air pollution exposure affects circulating white blood cell counts in healthy subjects: the role of particle composition, oxidative potential and gaseous pollutants - the RAPTES project. Inhal Toxicol. 2014 Feb;26(3):141-65. doi: 10.3109/08958378.2013.861884.
 Raaschou-Nielsen O, Andersen ZJ, ... Hoek G. Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts: prospective analyses from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Lancet Oncol. 2013 Aug;14(9):813-22. doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(13)70279-1. Epub 2013 Jul 10.
 Panis LI, Geus B, ... Meeusen R. Exposure to particulate matter in traffic: A comparison of cyclists and car passengers. Atmospheric Environment 44(19} 2010: 2263-2270.
 Our World In Data. Global Burden Of Disease 2016.
 States Of Global Affair. State Of Global Air 2018: A Special Report On Global Exposure To Air Pollution And Its Disease Burden.
 United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2014). World Urbanization Prospects: The 2014 Revision, Highlights (ST/ESA/SER.A/352)
 Meng QY, Spector D, Colome S, Turpin B. Determinants of Indoor and Personal Exposure to PM(2.5) of Indoor and Outdoor Origin during the RIOPA Study. Atmos Environ (1994). 2009 Nov;43(36):5750-5758.
 Lin LY, Chuang HC, Liu IJ, Chen HW, Chuang KJ. Reducing indoor air pollution by air conditioning is associated with improvements in cardiovascular health among the general population. Sci Total Environ. 2013 Oct 1;463-464:176-81. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.05.093. Epub 2013 Jun 23.
 Huang YL, Chen HW, ... Chuang KJ. Personal exposure to household particulate matter, household activities and heart rate variability among housewives. PLoS One. 2014 Mar 3;9(3):e89969. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089969. eCollection 2014.
 Macintosh DL, Myatt TA, ... Spengler JD. Whole house particle removal and clean air delivery rates for in-duct and portable ventilation systems. J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2008 Nov;58(11):1474-82.
 Macintosh DL, Myatt TA, ... Spengler JD. Whole house particle removal and clean air delivery rates for in-duct and portable ventilation systems. J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2008 Nov;58(11):1474-82.
 Park HK, Cheng KC, ... Nadeau KC. Effectiveness of air purifier on health outcomes and indoor particles in homes of children with allergic diseases in Fresno, California: A pilot study. J Asthma. 2017 May;54(4):341-346. doi: 10.1080/02770903.2016.1218011. Epub 2016 Oct 10.
 Sublett JL. Effectiveness of air filters and air cleaners in allergic respiratory diseases: a review of the recent literature. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2011 Oct;11(5):395-402. doi: 10.1007/s11882-011-0208-5.
 Lim SS, Vos T, ... Memish ZA. A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2012 Dec 15;380(9859):2224-60. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61766-8.
 Anderson JO, Thundiyil JG, Stolbach A. Clearing the air: a review of the effects of particulate matter air pollution on human health. J Med Toxicol. 2012 Jun;8(2):166-75. doi: 10.1007/s13181-011-0203-1.
 Bonner JC. Nanoparticles as a potential cause of pleural and interstitial lung disease. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2010 May;7(2):138-41. doi: 10.1513/pats.200907-061RM.
 Sharman JE, Cockcroft JR, Coombes JS. Cardiovascular implications of exposure to traffic air pollution during exercise. QJM. 2004 Oct;97(10):637-43.
 Diette GB , McCormack MC, Hansel NN, Breysse PN, Matsui EC. Environmental issues in managing asthma. Respir Care. 2008 May;53(5):602-15; discussion 616-7.
 Suades-González E, Gascon M, Guxens M, Sunyer J. Air Pollution and Neuropsychological Development: A Review of the Latest Evidence. Endocrinology. 2015 Oct;156(10):3473-82. doi: 10.1210/en.2015-1403. Epub 2015 Aug 4.
 Talbott EO, Arena VC, ... Stacy SL. Fine particulate matter and the risk of autism spectrum disorder. Environ Res. 2015 Jul;140:414-20. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2015.04.021. Epub 2015 May 15.
 Weisskopf MG, Kioumourtzoglou MA, Roberts AL. Air Pollution and Autism Spectrum Disorders: Causal or Confounded? Curr Environ Health Rep. 2015 Dec;2(4):430-9. doi: 10.1007/s40572-015-0073-9.
 Morales-Suárez-Varela M, Peraita-Costa I, Llopis-González A. Systematic review of the association between particulate matter exposure and autism spectrum disorders. Environ Res. 2017 Feb;153:150-160. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2016.11.022. Epub 2016 Dec 13.
 Fordyce TA, Leonhard MJ, Chang ET. A critical review of developmental exposure to particulate matter, autism spectrum disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 2018 Jan 28;53(2):174-204. doi: 10.1080/10934529.2017.1383121. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
 Lam J, Sutton P, ... Woodruff T. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Multiple Airborne Pollutants and Autism Spectrum Disorder. PLoS One. 2016 Sep 21;11(9):e0161851. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0161851. eCollection 2016.
 Health Quality Ontario. Air cleaning technologies: an evidence-based analysis. Ont Health Technol Assess Ser. 2005;5(17):1-52. Epub 2005 Nov 1.
 Wyon DP. The effects of indoor air quality on performance and productivity. Indoor Air. 2004;14 Suppl 7:92-101.
 Barn P, Gombojav E, ... Allen RW. The effect of portable HEPA filter air cleaner use during pregnancy on fetal growth: The UGAAR randomized controlled trial. Environ Int. 2018 Sep 10. pii: S0160-4120(18)31141-3. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2018.08.036.
 Barn P, Gombojav E,... Allen RW. The effect of portable HEPA filter air cleaners on indoor PM2.5 concentrations and second hand tobacco smoke exposure among pregnant women in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia: The UGAAR randomized controlled trial. Sci Total Environ. 2018 Feb 15;615:1379-1389. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.291. Epub 2017 Oct 17.
 Morgan WJ, Crain EF, ... Inner-City Asthma Study Group. Results of a home-based environmental intervention among urban children with asthma. N Engl J Med. 2004 Sep 9;351(11):1068-80.
 Wood RA. Air filtration devices in the control of indoor allergens. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2002 Sep;2(5):397-400.
 McDonald E, Cook D, Newman T, Griffith L, Cox G, Guyatt G. Effect of air filtration systems on asthma: a systematic review of randomized trials. Chest. 2002 Nov;122(5):1535-42.
 Lanphear BP, Hornung RW, ... Kalkbrenner A. Effects of HEPA air cleaners on unscheduled asthma visits and asthma symptoms for children exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke. Pediatrics. 2011 Jan;127(1):93-101. doi: 10.1542/peds.2009-2312. Epub 2010 Dec 13.
 Francis H, Fletcher G, ... Niven R. Clinical effects of air filters in homes of asthmatic adults sensitized and exposed to pet allergens. Clin Exp Allergy. 2003 Jan;33(1):101-5.
 Myatt TA, Minegishi T, Allen JG, Macintosh DL. Control of asthma triggers in indoor air with air cleaners: a modeling analysis. Environ Health. 2008 Aug 6;7:43. doi: 10.1186/1476-069X-7-43.
 van der Heide S, van Aalderen WM, ... de Monchy JG. Clinical effects of air cleaners in homes of asthmatic children sensitized to pet allergens. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1999 Aug;104(2 Pt 1):447-51.
 Wood RA, Johnson EF, Van Natta ML, Chen PH, Eggleston PA. A placebo-controlled trial of a HEPA air cleaner in the treatment of cat allergy. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1998 Jul;158(1):115-20.
 Zhan Y, Johnson K, ... Schauer JJ. The influence of air cleaners on indoor particulate matter components and oxidative potential in residential households in Beijing. Sci Total Environ. 2018 Jun 1;626:507-518. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.01.024. Epub 2018 Feb 19.
 Jia-Ying L, Zhao C, ... Bao-Qing S. Efficacy of air purifier therapy in allergic rhinitis. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. 2018 Mar 12. doi: 10.12932/AP-010717-0109.
 Morishita M, Adar SD, ... Brook RD. Effect of Portable Air Filtration Systems on Personal Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter and Blood Pressure Among Residents in a Low-Income Senior Facility: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2018 Oct 1;178(10):1350-1357. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.3308.
 Yu N, Shu S, ... Zhu Y. High efficiency cabin air filter in vehicles reduces drivers' roadway particulate matter exposures and associated lipid peroxidation. PLoS One. 2017 Nov 27;12(11):e0188498. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188498. eCollection 2017.
 Rice JL, Brigham E, ... Diette GB. The feasibility of an air purifier and secondhand smoke education intervention in homes of inner city pregnant women and infants living with a smoker. Environ Res. 2018 Jan;160:524-530. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2017.10.020. Epub 2017 Oct 29.
 Johnson L, Ciaccio C, ... Portnoy JM. Low-cost interventions improve indoor air quality and children's health. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2009 Jul-Aug;30(4):377-85. doi: 10.2500/aap.2009.30.3257.
 Batterman S, Du L, Mentz G, ... Lewis T. Particulate matter concentrations in residences: an intervention study evaluating stand-alone filters and air conditioners. Indoor Air. 2012 Jun;22(3):235-52. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0668.2011.00761.x. Epub 2012 Feb 4.
 Barn PK, Elliott CT, ... Henderson SB. Portable air cleaners should be at the forefront of the public health response to landscape fire smoke. Environ Health. 2016 Nov 25;15(1):116.
 Padró-Martínez LT, Owusu E, ... Durant JL. A Randomized Cross-over Air Filtration Intervention Trial for Reducing Cardiovascular Health Risks in Residents of Public Housing near a Highway. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015 Jul 10;12(7):7814-38. doi: 10.3390/ijerph120707814.
 Du L, Batterman S, ... Lewis T. Particle Concentrations and Effectiveness of Free-Standing Air Filters in Bedrooms of Children with Asthma in Detroit, Michigan. Build Environ. 2011 Oct;46(11):2303-2313.
 EPA. Indoor Air Quality. Ozone Generators that are Sold as Air Cleaners.
 Chen TM, Gokhale J, Shofer S, Kuschner WG. Outdoor air pollution: ozone health effects. Am J Med Sci. 2007 Apr;333(4):244-8.
 Atkinson RW, Butland BK, ... Anderson HR. Long-term exposure to ambient ozone and mortality: a quantitative systematic review and meta-analysis of evidence from cohort studies. BMJ Open. 2016 Feb 23;6(2):e009493. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009493.
 Bell ML, Zanobetti A, Dominici F. Who is more affected by ozone pollution? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol. 2014 Jul 1;180(1):15-28. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwu115. Epub 2014 May 28.
 Zhao T, Markevych I, Romanos M, Nowak D, Heinrich J. Ambient ozone exposure and mental health: A systematic review of epidemiological studies. Environ Res. 2018 Aug;165:459-472. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.04.015. Epub 2018 May 1.
 California Air Resources Board. California Certified Air Cleaning Devices.
 Terzano C, Di Stefano F, ... Graziani E. Air pollution ultrafine particles: Toxicity beyond the lung. European review for medical and pharmacological sciences 2010 14(10):809-21.
 TNO Netherlands. Emissions Of Particulate Matter From Diesel Cars.
 Fisk WJ. Health benefits of particle filtration. Indoor Air. 2013 Oct;23(5):357-68. doi: 10.1111/ina.12036. Epub 2013 Mar 21.
 EPA. Residential Air Cleaners - A Technical Summary, 3rd Edition.
 Allen RW, Carlsten C, ... Brauer M. An air filter intervention study of endothelial function among healthy adults in a woodsmoke-impacted community. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011 May 1;183(9):1222-30. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201010-1572OC. Epub 2011 Jan 21.
 Barn P, Larson T, ... Brauer M. Infiltration of forest fire and residential wood smoke: an evaluation of air cleaner effectiveness. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2008 Sep;18(5):503-11. Epub 2007 Dec 5.
 Bräuner EV, Forchhammer L, ... Loft S. Indoor particles affect vascular function in the aged: an air filtration-based intervention study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008 Feb 15;177(4):419-25. Epub 2007 Oct 11.
 Butz AM, Matsui EC, ... Rand C. A randomized trial of air cleaners and a health coach to improve indoor air quality for inner-city children with asthma and secondhand smoke exposure. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011 Aug;165(8):741-8. doi: 10.1001/archpediatrics.2011.111.
 Chen R, Zhao A, ... Kan H. Cardiopulmonary benefits of reducing indoor particles of outdoor origin: a randomized, double-blind crossover trial of air purifiers. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015 Jun 2;65(21):2279-87. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2015.03.553.
 Cui X, Li F, ... Zhang JJ. Cardiopulmonary effects of overnight indoor air filtration in healthy non-smoking adults: A double-blind randomized crossover study. Environ Int. 2018 May;114:27-36. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2018.02.010. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
 Kajbafzadeh M, Brauer M, ... Allen RW. The impacts of traffic-related and woodsmoke particulate matter on measures of cardiovascular health: a HEPA filter intervention study. Occup Environ Med. 2015 Jun;72(6):394-400. doi: 10.1136/oemed-2014-102696. Epub 2015 Apr 20.
 Karottki DG, Spilak M, ... Loft S. An indoor air filtration study in homes of elderly: cardiovascular and respiratory effects of exposure to particulate matter. Environ Health. 2013 Dec 28;12:116. doi: 10.1186/1476-069X-12-116.
 Shao D, Du Y, ... Huang W. Cardiorespiratory responses of air filtration: A randomized crossover intervention trial in seniors living in Beijing: Beijing Indoor Air Purifier StudY, BIAPSY. Sci Total Environ. 2017 Dec 15;603-604:541-549. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.06.095. Epub 2017 Jun 20.
 Weichenthal S, Mallach G, ... Sharp D. A randomized double-blind crossover study of indoor air filtration and acute changes in cardiorespiratory health in a First Nations community. Indoor Air. 2013 Jun;23(3):175-84. doi: 10.1111/ina.12019. Epub 2013 Jan 19.
 Xu Y, Raja S, ... Wetzel LE. Effectiveness of heating, ventilation and air conditioning system with HEPA filter unit on indoor air quality and asthmatic children's health. Building and Environment 45(2) 2010, 330-337.
 Gourdji S. Review of plants to mitigate particulate matter, ozone as well as nitrogen dioxide air pollutants and applicable recommendations for green roofs in Montreal, Quebec. Environ Pollut. 2018 Oct;241:378-387. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2018.05.053. Epub 2018 May 28.
 Chen L, Liu C, Zhang L, Zou R, Zhang Z. Variation in Tree Species Ability to Capture and Retain Airborne Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5). Sci Rep. 2017 Jun 9;7(1):3206. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-03360-1.
 Schaubroeck T, Deckmyn G,... Verheyen K. Multilayered modeling of particulate matter removal by a growing forest over time, from plant surface deposition to washoff via rainfall. Environ Sci Technol. 2014 Sep 16;48(18):10785-94. doi: 10.1021/es5019724. Epub 2014 Aug 25.
 Przybysz A, Sæbø A, Hanslin HM, Gawroński SW. Accumulation of particulate matter and trace elements on vegetation as affected by pollution level, rainfall and the passage of time. Sci Total Environ. 2014 May 15;481:360-9. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.02.072. Epub 2014 Mar 7.
 Liang D, Ma C, ... Chen-Xi Z. Quantifying PM2.5 capture capability of greening trees based on leaf factors analyzing. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2016 Nov;23(21):21176-21186. Epub 2016 Sep 19.
 Mo L, Ma Z, ... Yu X. Assessing the Capacity of Plant Species to Accumulate Particulate Matter in Beijing, China. PLoS One. 2015 Oct 27;10(10):e0140664. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0140664. eCollection 2015.
 Weerakkody U, Dover JW, Mitchell P, Reiling K. Quantification of the traffic-generated particulate matter capture by plant species in a living wall and evaluation of the important leaf characteristics. Sci Total Environ. 2018 Sep 1;635:1012-1024. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.04.106. Epub 2018 Apr 24.
 Sæbø A, Popek R, ... Gawronski SW. Plant species differences in particulate matter accumulation on leaf surfaces. Sci Total Environ. 2012 Jun 15;427-428:347-54. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.03.084. Epub 2012 May 2.
 Chen J, Yu X, Bi H, Fu Y. Indoor simulations reveal differences among plant species in capturing particulate matter. PLoS One. 2017 May 16;12(5):e0177539. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0177539. eCollection 2017.
 Zhang T, Bai Y, Hong X, Sun L, Liu Y. Particulate matter and heavy metal deposition on the leaves of Euonymus japonicus during the East Asian monsoon in Beijing, China. PLoS One. 2017 Jun 29;12(6):e0179840. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0179840. eCollection 2017.
 Macintosh DL, Minegishi T, ... Myatt TA. The benefits of whole-house in-duct air cleaning in reducing exposures to fine particulate matter of outdoor origin: a modeling analysis. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2010 Mar;20(2):213-24. doi: 10.1038/jes.2009.16. Epub 2009 Mar 25.
 Panis LI. Cycling: health benefits and risks. Environ Health Perspect. 2011 Mar;119(3):a114; author reply a114-5. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1103227.
 Daigle CC, Chalupa DC, ... Frampton MW. Ultrafine particle deposition in humans during rest and exercise. Inhal Toxicol. 2003 May;15(6):539-52.
 Heyder J, Gebhart J, Rudolf G, et al. Deposition of particles in the human respiratory tract in the size range 0.005–15 µm. J Aerosol Sci 1986;17:811-25.
 Bennett WD, Zeman KL, Jarabek AM. Nasal contribution to breathing and fine particle deposition in children versus adults. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2008;71(3):227-37.
 Campbell ME, Li Q, Gingrich SE, Macfarlane RG, Cheng S. Should people be physically active outdoors on smog alert days? Can J Public Health. 2005 Jan-Feb;96(1):24-8.
 Rojas-Rueda D, de Nazelle A, Teixidó O, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ. Replacing car trips by increasing bike and public transport in the greater Barcelona metropolitan area: a health impact assessment study. Environ Int. 2012 Nov 15;49:100-9. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2012.08.009. Epub 2012 Sep 21.
 Hartog JJ, Boogaard H, Nijland H, Hoek G. Do the health benefits of cycling outweigh the risks? Cien Saude Colet. 2011 Dec;16(12):4731-44.
 de Nazelle A, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, ...Lebret E. Improving health through policies that promote active travel: a review of evidence to support integrated health impact assessment. Environ Int. 2011 May;37(4):766-77. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2011.02.003.
 Zuurbier M, Hoek G... Brunekreef B. Commuters' exposure to particulate matter air pollution is affected by mode of transport, fuel type, and route. Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Jun;118(6):783-9. doi: 10.1289/ehp.0901622. Epub 2010 Feb 25.
 Hudda N, Kostenidou E, Sioutas C, Delfino RJ, Fruin SA. Vehicle and driving characteristics that influence in-cabin particle number concentrations. Environ Sci Technol. 2011 Oct 15;45(20):8691-7. doi: 10.1021/es202025m. Epub 2011 Sep 19.
 Chuang HC, Lin LY, Hsu YW, Ma CM, Chuang KJ. In-car particles and cardiovascular health: an air conditioning-based intervention study. Sci Total Environ. 2013 May 1;452-453:309-13. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.02.097. Epub 2013 Mar 22.
 Liu S, Noth E, Eisen E, Cullen MR, Hammond K. Respirator use and its impact on particulate matter exposure in aluminum manufacturing facilities. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2018 Sep 1;44(5):547-554. doi: 10.5271/sjweh.3735. Epub 2018 May 31.
 Burton KA, Whitelaw JL, Jones AL, Davies B. Efficiency of Respirator Filter Media against Diesel Particulate Matter: A Comparison Study Using Two Diesel Particulate Sources. Ann Occup Hyg. 2016 Jul;60(6):771-9. doi: 10.1093/annhyg/mew026. Epub 2016 May 17.
 Zhou SS, Lukula S, ... Ijaz MK. Assessment of a respiratory face mask for capturing air pollutants and pathogens including human influenza and rhinoviruses. J Thorac Dis. 2018 Mar;10(3):2059-2069. doi: 10.21037/jtd.2018.03.103.
 Cherrie JW, Apsley A, Cowie ... Loh M. Effectiveness of face masks used to protect Beijing residents against particulate air pollution. Occup Environ Med. 2018 Jun;75(6):446-452. doi: 10.1136/oemed-2017-104765. Epub 2018 Apr 9.
 Grinshpun SA, Haruta H, Eninger RM, Reponen T, McKay RT, Lee SA. Performance of an N95 filtering facepiece particulate respirator and a surgical mask during human breathing: two pathways for particle penetration. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2009 Oct;6(10):593-603. doi: 10.1080/15459620903120086.
 Shi J, Lin Z, ... Kan H. Cardiovascular Benefits of Wearing Particulate-Filtering Respirators: A Randomized Crossover Trial. Environ Health Perspect. 2017 Feb;125(2):175-180. doi: 10.1289/EHP73. Epub 2016 Aug 26.
 Cho KJ, Reponen T, ... Grinshpun SA. Large particle penetration through N95 respirator filters and facepiece leaks with cyclic flow. Ann Occup Hyg. 2010 Jan;54(1):68-77. doi: 10.1093/annhyg/mep062. Epub 2009 Aug 21.
 Winter S, Thomas JH, Stephens DP, Davis JS. Particulate face masks for protection against airborne pathogens - one size does not fit all: an observational study. Crit Care Resusc. 2010 Mar;12(1):24-7.
 Brook RD, Rajagopalan S, ... Kaufman JD. Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease: An update to the scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2010 Jun 1;121(21):2331-78. doi: 10.1161/CIR.0b013e3181dbece1. Epub 2010 May 10.
 Peden DB. The epidemiology and genetics of asthma risk associated with air pollution. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005 Feb;115(2):213-9; quiz 220.
 Chen Z, Salam MT, ... Gilliland FD. Chronic effects of air pollution on respiratory health in Southern California children: findings from the Southern California Children's Health Study. J Thorac Dis. 2015 Jan;7(1):46-58. doi: 10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2014.12.20.
 Bell ML, Zanobetti A, Dominici F. Evidence on vulnerability and susceptibility to health risks associated with short-term exposure to particulate matter: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol. 2013 Sep 15;178(6):865-76. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwt090. Epub 2013 Jul 25.
 Ji H, Khurana Hershey GK. Genetic and epigenetic influence on the response to environmental particulate matter. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012 Jan;129(1):33-41. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2011.11.008.
 Hussain S, Laumbach R, ... Kipen H. Controlled exposure to diesel exhaust causes increased nitrite in exhaled breath condensate among subjects with asthma. J Occup Environ Med. 2012 Oct;54(10):1186-91. doi: 10.1097/JOM.0b013e31826bb64c.
 Wright RJ, Brunst KJ. Programming of respiratory health in childhood: influence of outdoor air pollution. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2013 Apr;25(2):232-9. doi: 10.1097/MOP.0b013e32835e78cc.
 Laumbach RJ. Outdoor air pollutants and patient health. Am Fam Physician. 2010 Jan 15;81(2):175-80.
 Rich DQ, Kipen HM, ... Zhang JJ. Association between changes in air pollution levels during the Beijing Olympics and biomarkers of inflammation and thrombosis in healthy young adults. JAMA. 2012 May 16;307(19):2068-78. doi: 10.1001/jama.2012.3488.
 Peters A, Dockery DW, Muller JE, Mittleman MA. Increased particulate air pollution and the triggering of myocardial infarction. Circulation. 2001 Jun 12;103(23):2810-5.
 Kelly FJ, Fussell JC. Air pollution and public health: emerging hazards and improved understanding of risk. Environ Geochem Health. 2015 Aug;37(4):631-49. doi: 10.1007/s10653-015-9720-1. Epub 2015 Jun 4.
 Downs SH, Schindler C, Liu LJ, ... SAPALDIA Team. Reduced exposure to PM10 and attenuated age-related decline in lung function. N Engl J Med. 2007 Dec 6;357(23):2338-47.
 Bayer-Oglesby L, Grize L, ... Braun-Fahrländer C. Decline of ambient air pollution levels and improved respiratory health in Swiss children. Environ Health Perspect. 2005 Nov;113(11):1632-7.
 Pope CA 3rd, Ezzati M, Dockery DW. Fine-particulate air pollution and life expectancy in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2009 Jan 22;360(4):376-86. doi: 10.1056/NEJMsa0805646.
 Schindler C, Keidel D, ... Rochat T. Improvements in PM10 exposure and reduced rates of respiratory symptoms in a cohort of Swiss adults (SAPALDIA). Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009 Apr 1;179(7):579-87. doi: 10.1164/rccm.200803-388OC. Epub 2009 Jan 16.
 Zhong J, Karlsson O, ... Baccarelli AA. B vitamins attenuate the epigenetic effects of ambient fine particles in a pilot human intervention trial. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Mar 28;114(13):3503-3508. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1618545114. Epub 2017 Mar 13.
 Weichenthal S. Selected physiological effects of ultrafine particles in acute cardiovascular morbidity. Environ Res. 2012 May;115:26-36. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2012.03.001. Epub 2012 Mar 31.
 Auerbach NA, Walker WD, Walker DA. Effects of Roadside Disturbance on Substrate and Vegetation Properties in Arctic Tundra. Ecological Applications 7(1) 1997: 218-235.
 Cape JN. Direct damage to vegetation caused by acid rain and polluted cloud: definition of critical levels for forest trees. Environ Pollut. 1993;82(2):167-80.
 Singh S, Elumalai SP, Pal AK. Rain pH estimation based on the particulate matter pollutants and wet deposition study. Sci Total Environ. 2016 Sep 1;563-564:293-301. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.04.066. Epub 2016 Apr 30.
 Grantz DA, Garner JH, Johnson DW. Ecological effects of particulate matter. Environ Int. 2003 Jun;29(2-3):213-39.
 Eller BM. Road dust induced increase of leaf temperature. Environmental Pollution 1970 13(2) 99-107.
 Farmer AM. The effects of dust on vegetation--a review. Environ Pollut. 1993;79(1):63-75.
 Bilotta GS1, Burnside NG, ...Davy-Bowker J. Developing environment-specific water quality guidelines for suspended particulate matter. Water Res. 2012 May 1;46(7):2324-32. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2012.01.055. Epub 2012 Feb 8.
 Shao T, Zheng H, ... Zhang B. Influence of environmental factors on absorption characteristics of suspended particulate matter and CDOM in Liaohe River watershed, northeast China. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017 Aug;24(23):19322-19337. doi: 10.1007/s11356-017-9480-9. Epub 2017 Jul 1.
 Baalousha M, Stoll S, ... Le Coustumer P. Suspended particulate matter determines physical speciation of Fe, Mn, and trace metals in surface waters of Loire watershed. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018 Feb 10. doi: 10.1007/s11356-018-1416-5.
 Liu C, Fan C, ... Zhou Q. Effects of riverine suspended particulate matter on post-dredging metal re-contamination across the sediment-water interface. Chemosphere. 2016 Feb;144:2329-35. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.11.010. Epub 2015 Nov 21.
 Hudda N, Simon MC, ... Durant JL. Aviation Emissions Impact Ambient Ultrafine Particle Concentrations in the Greater Boston Area. Environ Sci Technol. 2016 Aug 16;50(16):8514-21. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.6b01815. Epub 2016 Aug 4.
 Psanis C, Triantafyllou E, ... Biskos G. Particulate matter pollution from aviation-related activity at a small airport of the Aegean Sea Insular Region. Sci Total Environ. 2017 Oct 15;596-597:187-193. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.04.078. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
 Hudda N, Simon MC, Zamore W, Durant JL. Aviation-Related Impacts on Ultrafine Particle Number Concentrations Outside and Inside Residences near an Airport. Environ Sci Technol. 2018 Feb 20;52(4):1765-1772. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.7b05593. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
 Wayson RL, Fleming GG, Lovinelli R. Methodology to estimate particulate matter emissions from certified commercial aircraft engines. J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2009 Jan;59(1):91-100.
 Bishop AE, Polak JM. Pulmonary epithelium. Methods Enzymol. 2006;418:333-49.
 Enkhbat U, Rule AM, ... Williams DL. Exposure to PM2.5 and Blood Lead Level in Two Populations in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016 Feb 15;13(2):214. doi: 10.3390/ijerph13020214.
 Chen X, Liu J, ... Pan J. Urban particulate matter (PM) suppresses airway antibacterial defence. Respir Res. 2018 Jan 8;19(1):5. doi: 10.1186/s12931-017-0700-0.
 Grunig G, Marsh LM, ... Park SH. Perspective: ambient air pollution: inflammatory response and effects on the lung's vasculature. Pulm Circ. 2014 Mar;4(1):25-35. doi: 10.1086/674902.
 Clark B, Masters S, Edwards M. Profile sampling to characterize particulate lead risks in potable water. Environ Sci Technol. 2014 Jun 17;48(12):6836-43. doi: 10.1021/es501342j. Epub 2014 Jun 6.
 Shen H, Peters TM, ... Ault AP. Elevated Concentrations of Lead in Particulate Matter on the Neighborhood-Scale in Delhi, India As Determined by Single Particle Analysis. Environ Sci Technol. 2016 May 17;50(10):4961-70. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.5b06202. Epub 2016 May 2.
Get Free Health Tips and Blog Updates
Get my tips and blog updates for energy, sleep quality, mental and physical performance, well-being, and beauty.
Only sign up if you're interested in long-term health. I do not offer quick solutions.
(Double check your spam e-mail box, as my e-mails might end up there. Without my e-mails, you'll have no access to my free unique content)
Just leave your name and e-mail address.
Don't expect quick solutions. Building your health is a long-term process - and my blog posts and courses are targeted towards that process.
(My e-mails may automatically end up in your spam filter. Make sure to tag my e-mails as safe, to get your full free benefits.)